Download
cse 6341 755 programming languages n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
CSE 6341 (755) Programming Languages PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
CSE 6341 (755) Programming Languages

CSE 6341 (755) Programming Languages

125 Vues Download Presentation
Télécharger la présentation

CSE 6341 (755) Programming Languages

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. CSE 6341 (755)Programming Languages Neelam Soundarajan Computer Sc. & Eng. Dreese Labs 579 e-mail: neelam@cse

  2. Outline • Main Topic: • Ways to formally define syntax and semantics of PLs • Plus … a bit about programming methodologies • Tentative Schedule: • Attribute grammars: 3 weeks • Operational Semantics (including Lisp & its interpreter): 3.5 weeks • Axiomatic Semantics: 3.5 weeks • Denotational Semantics: 1 week • Other topics: ?? • Exams etc.: 0.5 week CSE 6341/755

  3. References Unfortunately, no good books for the course. Mainly depend on slides, class discussions, your notes. DO NOT miss classes. Some useful references: • Formal specification of programming languages, F. Pagan • Formal syntax and semantics of programming languages,Kurtz and Slonnegar • Lisp 1.5 programmer’s manual, McCarthy and others Copies of all on reserve in the Sc./Eng. Library CSE 6341/755

  4. Attribute Grammars (Ref.: Pagan (Ch. 2.3); Kurtz (Ch. 3)) Fact: Context-free conditions: specified using BNF Question: How do we specify context-sensitive (CS) conds? Answer: Using Attribute Grammars (AGs) An AG is: a BNF grammar + attributes + rules for evaluating attributes + conditions (to capture c.s. requirements) CSE 6341/755

  5. Example L = { an bn cn | n >= 1 } <as> ::= a | a<as>1 Na(<as>)← 1 Na(<as>)← Na(<as>1)+1 <bs> ::= b | b<bs>1 Nb(<bs>)← 1 Nb(<bs>)← Nb(<bs>1)+1 <cs> ::= c | c<cs>1 Nc(<cs>)← 1 Nc(<cs>)← Nc(<cs>1)+1 <ls> ::= <as><bs><cs> Cond: Na(<as) = Nb(<bs>) = Nc(<cs>) Na: Synthesized attribute of <as> Nb: Synthesized attribute of <bs> Nc: Synthesized attribute of <cs> No inherited attributes in this grammar. CSE 6341/755

  6. Some Comments • Consider how the grammar works with a parse tree,allowing, say, "aabbcc", and disallowing "aabcc" • Attributes are NOT program variables; can't have:Na(<as>) ← Na(<as>) + 1 • In rules/conditions, can only refer to attributes of non-terminal on the left and the non-terminals in the current alternative. Can't look at "grand children" etc. • Could have used N (instead of Na, Nb, Nc) as the name of all three attributes. CSE 6341/755

  7. Example (revisited) L = { an bn cn | n >= 1 } <ls> ::= <as><bs><cs> ExpNb(<bs>) ← Na(<as>) ExpNc(<cs>) ← Na(<as>) <as> ::= a | a<as>1 Na(<as>)← 1 Na(<as>)← Na(<as>1)+1 <bs> ::= b | b<bs>1 Cond: ExpNb(<bs>) =1 ExpNb(<bs>1) ← ExpNb(<bs>) −1 <cs> ::= c | c<cs>1 Cond: ExpNc(<cs>) =1 ExpNc(<cs>1) ← ExpNc(<cs>) −1 Na: Synthesized attribute of <as> ExpNb: Inherited attribute of <bs> ExpNc: Inherited attribute of <cs> Consider all strings over {a,b,c} (i.e., a's, b's, c's may be in any order) and require: no. of a's = no. of b's = no. of c's (using synh. & synth+inh. attr) CSE 6341/755

  8. Some Comments • An AG is a BNF grammar plus a set of attributes, some synth., others inh. Each attribute is associated with a specific non-terminal. • If S is a synth. attrib. of <N>, then for each alternative in <N>'s production, must have an eval. rule that will be used to compute S(<N>) whenever that alternative is used. • If I is an inh. attrib. of <N>, then for each occurrence of <N> on the right side of any production, must have eval. rule that will be used to computer I(<N>) if that alternative is used. • Conditions are associated with individual alternatives of individual productions. • If any condition in a tree evaluates to false, the tree collapses CSE 6341/755

  9. Context-free condns. using AGs CF conditions can also be expressed using AGs. L = { an bn | n >= 1 } <ls> ::= <as><bs> Cond: Na(<as>) = Nb(<bs>) AGs can be used to capture precedence, i.e., specify how a string is to be parsed: Consider all strings over {a, b}.Given "abab", want to ensure it is parsed as a(b(a(b))), notas (ab)(ab) etc.: <str> ::= a | b N(<str>)← 1 N(<str>)← 1 | <str>1<str>2 N(<str>) ← N(<str>1) + N(<str>2) Cond: (N(<str>1) = 1) CSE 6341/755

  10. Context-sens. condns. in PLs Main condition: Id's that are used must have been declared <prog> ::= <block> <block> ::= begin <decl seq> <stmt seq> end; How to ensure that in <stmt seq> we only use objects declared in <decl seq>? Using synthesized attributes: <block> ::= begin <decl seq> <stmt seq> end; Cond: UsedIds(<stmt seq>)  DeclIds(<decl seq>) Using inherited attributes: <block> ::= begin <decl seq> <stmt seq> end; AllowedIds(<stmt seq>) ← DeclIds(<decl seq>) CSE 6341/755

  11. CS conditions in PLs (contd.) Problem: Nested blocks (what are they?) Solution: Use a sequence of sets, each containing Ids declared in a (surrounding) block <block> ::= begin <decl seq> <stmt seq> end; Nest(<stmt seq>) ← append(Nest(<block>), Decs(<decl seq>)) <stmt seq> ::= <stmt> Nest(<stmt>) ← Nest(<stmt seq>) | <stmt><stmt seq>1Nest(<stmt>), Nest(<stmt seq>1) ← Nest(<stmt seq>) <program> ::= <block> Nest(<block>) ← <> CSE 6341/755

  12. CS conditions in PLs (contd.) Problem: Different types of Ids Solution: An element of Decs() is of the form: ("xy", int), or ("ab", bool), or ("PQ", proc) (For procedures, also need info about no./types of pars) Where do we check (that the CS conds. are satisfied)? <assign> ::= <id> := <int exp>; Cond: lastType(Name(<id>, Nest(<assign>) = int <id> := <bool exp>;Cond: lastType(Name(<id>, Nest(<assign>) = bool CSE 6341/755

  13. CS conditions in PLs (contd.) <proc call> ::= call <id>(); Cond: lastType(Name(<id>), Nest(<proc call>)) = proc parTypes(Name(<id>), Nest(<proc call>)) = <> | call <id>(<arg list); Cond: lastType(Name(<id>), Nest(<proc call>)) = proc parTypes(Name(<id>), Nest(<proc call>)) = ... Question: What about double declarations? <ds> ::= <decl> Decs(<ds>) ← Decs(<decl>); Nest(<decl>)←Nest(<ds>) | <decl> <ds>1 Decs(<ds>) ← Decs(<decl>)  Decs(<ds>1) Nest(<decl>), Nest (<ds>1) ← Nest(<ds>) Cond: Decs(<decl>)  Decs(<ds>1) =  // Not quite? CSE 6341/755

  14. **Note: Maybe better to look at e.g. in pp. 15/16 before grammar rules below** Questions: How do elements get into Decs()? How do procs access surr. block/call other procs? (Ans: Need to pass Nest also to the <decl>s.) <block> ::= begin <decl seq> <stmt seq> end; Nest(<stmt seq>) ← append(Nest(<block>), Decs(<decl seq>)) Nest(<decl seq>) ← append(Nest(<block>), Decs(<decl seq>)) <decl> ::= int <id>; Decs(<decl>) ← {(Name(<id>), int)} | bool <id>; Decs(<decl>) ← {(Name(<id>), bool)} | proc <id>() <block> Decs(<decl>) ← {(Name(<id>), proc, <>)} Nest(<block>) ← Nest(<decl>) // need to change? | proc <id>(<par list>) <block> Decs(<decl>) ← {(Name(<id>), proc, Partypes(<par list>))} Nest(<block>) ← append(Nest(<decl>), Decs(<par list>)) CSE 6341/755

  15. <prog> <block> <ds> <ss> <d> <ds> int X, Y <d> <ds> <d> proc P(int U, bool Y) <block> proc Q() <block> <ss> <ds> <stmt> <d> <d> <block> proc X() proc X() <block> <block> <ds> <ss> CSE 6341/755

  16. <prog> <block> D1 N1 <ds> <ss> D2 N2 D3 N3 <d> <ds> N5 D4 N4 D5 int X, Y <d> <ds> D7 N7 D6 N6 <d> proc P(int U, bool Y) D17 D18 <block> proc Q() <block> D8 N8 D18 N18 <ss> <ds> N9 D10 N10 D9 <stmt> <d> <d> D10 N10 <block> proc X() proc X() <block> <block> D12 N12 <ds> D11 N11 <ss> D14 N14 N13 D13 D15 N15 N16 D16 CSE 6341/755

  17. Translational Semantics AGs also used to specify translations (code generation) (e.g.: YACC) (Ref: Pagan (ch. 3.2); Kurtz (ch. 7)) Basic idea: <stmt> ::= <stmt>1; <stmt>2 Code(<stmt>)← append(Code(<stmt>1), Code(<stmt>2)) but the details are more complex ... E.g.: How to ensure the same label is not used inCode(<stmt>1) and Code(<stmt>2) ? A simple imperative language (we will call it IMP; taken from Pagan): <prog> ::= <stmt> <stmt> ::= skip; | <assign> | <stmt>1;<stmt>2| if <be> then<stmt>1else <stmt>2 | while <be> do <stmt>1 <assign> ::= <id> := <ae>; <ae> ::= <id> | <int> | <ae>1+<ae>2 | <ae>1  <ae>2 | <ae>1 * <ae>2 <be> ::= true | false | <ae>1=<ae>2 | <ae>1 < <ae>2| <be> | <be>1  <be>2 | <be>1  <be>2 CSE 6341/755

  18. Translational Semantics (contd.) Key attributes: • Code: a synth. attribute of <stmt>, <ae>, <be>: The seq. of assembly instructions corresponding to a particular <stmt>, <ae>, <be> • Labin (inh.), Labout (synth.): keep track of next available label • Temp (inh.): keeps track of next available memory loc. for temporary use <prog> ::= <stmt> Code(<prog>) ← Code(<stmt>) Labin(<stmt>) ← 1 <stmt> ::= <stmt>1;<stmt>2 Code(<stmt>) ← append(Code(<stmt>1), Code(<stmt>2)) Labin(<stmt>1) ← Labin(<stmt>) Labin(<stmt>2) ← Labout(<stmt>1) Labout(<stmt>) ← Labout(<stmt>2) CSE 6341/755

  19. Translational Semantics (contd.) <stmt> ::= <assign> Code(<stmt>) ← Code(<assign>) Labout(<stmt>) ← Labin(<stmt>) // why? | if <be> then <stmt>1 else <stmt>2 Labin(<stmt>1) ← Labin(<stmt>) + 2 // why? Labin(<stmt>2) ← Labout(<stmt>1) Labout(<stmt>) ← Labout(<stmt>2) Code(<stmt>) ← append( Code(<be>), ("BZ", Labin(<stmt>)), // slight problem Code(<stmt>1), ("BR", label(Labin(<stmt>)+1)), (label(Labin(<stmt>)) "No-Op"), Code(<stmt>2), (label(Labin(<stmt>)+1) "No-Op") ) | while <be> do <stmt>1 Labin(<stmt>1) ← ... Labout(<stmt>) ← ... Code(<stmt>) ← ... BZ: "branch on zero"; BR: "unconditional branch"; "No-Op": "continue". CSE 6341/755

  20. Translational Semantics (contd.) <assign> ::= <id> := <ae>; Code(<assign>) ← append(Code(<ae>), ("STO", Name(<id>)) Temp(<ae>) ← 1 <ae> ::= <int> Code(<ae>) ← <("LOAD" Value(<int>))> | <id> Code(<ae>) ← <("LOAD" Name(<id>))> | <ae>1+<ae>2 Code(<ae>) ← append( Code(<ae>1), ("STO" temp(Temp(<ae>)), Code(<ae>2), ("ADD" temp(Temp(<ae>))) ) Temp(<ae>1) ←Temp(<ae>) Temp(<ae>2) ←Temp(<ae>) + 1 // why? CSE 6341/755

  21. Static Scope (Algol, Pascal, C, C++,...) Entities accessible in a procedure: Entities declared in that procedure +Entities declared in the “surrounding” procedure (less those with name conflicts) +Entities declared in procedure surrounding the surrounding procedure + ... Visualize: Each procedure is a box whose sides are one-way mirrors: you can look out of the box, but you can’t look into a box Some languages are not quite static scope but are close. CSE 6341/755

  22. Example program A, B, C: integer; Q: procedure // no parameters begin B := B+2; C := C+2; print A, B, C; end (Q); R: procedure A: integer; begin A := 3; C := 2; call Q; B := A+C; print A, B, C; end (R); S: procedure A, C: integer; Q: procedure // nested in S C: integer; begin A := A+1; C := B+1; print A, B, C; end (S.Q); begin // body of S B := 3; C := 1; A := 4; print A, B, C; call R; print A, B, C; end (S); begin // main body A := 1; B := 1; C := 1; call R; print A, B, C; call S; print A, B, C; end (main); C A Q R A S C C Q A