Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Intensified Contact Hitting Areas! End lines & Sidelines Dodges Shooting Zone10-12 yards out CREASE AREAS
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls The Technical Fouls (Pushing, Holding, Warding off, Illegal offensive screening, interference, withholding ball) Fouls that cause an unfair advantage! Vs. The HEAVY/ VIOLENT FOULS (Personal Fouls: UR , IBC, Cross Checking, Tripping, Slashing) Fouls that present a Safety issue!
TECHINCAL FOULS NFHS RULE 6 Technical fouls are those of a less serious nature than Personal fouls and include all violations of the rules of the game except Personal fouls. Some Technical fouls are closely associated with Personal Fouls! [Pushing, Holding, Conduct….IBC, UR, Cross Checking, Tripping, Unsportsmanlike conduct. The penalty for Technical fouls depends on whether the offended team has possession of the ball! Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Reviewing Technical Fouls • Technical fouls are those of a less serious nature than Personal fouls and include all violations of the rules of the game except Personal fouls. [Interference, Illegal offensive screening, with holding ball from play, stalling] • Some Technical fouls are closely associated with Personal Fouls! • Reviewing personal fouls: Slashing, Illegal equipment, illegal crosse, ejection and fouling out.
PERSONAL FOULS NFHS RULE 5 Personal fouls are those of a serious nature. They include: illegal body checking, slashing, crosse checking, tripping, unnecessary roughness, unsportsmanlike conduct and use of an illegal crosse. The penalty for a personal foul is 1 to 3 minutes depending on the severity of the foul. Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls TECHNICAL FOULS Penalty Enforcement If the ball is loose, there should be a Play-On, and if the offended team does not gain possession, they are awarded the ball at the spot where the ball is– if inside the attack area--- then move laterally outside attack area. If the team that has possession commits a technical foul, there is an immediate whistle and the ball is awarded to the opposing team at the spot or outside the attack area. If Team A has possession and Team B commits a technical foul (other than goalie interference or crease violations) the Flag down, Slow-Whistle (FDSW) technique is used. If Team A does not score a goal during the FDSW situation, then the player committing the foul will serve a 30-second penalty. If the ball was blown dead in the offended team’s defensive half, they will be awarded ball just over midfield (Free Clear) If blown dead in the team’s offensive half, the ball is awarded at the spot or laterally outside the attack area closest to where the ball was. If the offended team A scores a goal during the flag down situation, then the technical foul penalty is wiped out by the goal. Wave flag overhead and re-affirm goal is good.
TECHNICAL FOULS Advantage / Disadvantage Difficult part is determining which fouls to call and which to ignore. The best idea is that you should call: Fouls that present a Safety issue (most personal fouls) MUST BE CALLED! Fouls that you MUST CALL to maintain PROPER BEHAVIOR (Conduct fouls & Unsportsmanlike conduct fouls) Fouls that are abjectly obvious to everyone (line violations such as crease and off sides) Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls • Technical fouls that disadvantage the fouled team or create an unfair advantage for the fouling team • This last item is the most difficult to explain: • Suppose A1 is running down the field clearing the ball and B1 pushes him from behind , making him stumble but not fall or loose possession of the ball. There’s no need to call a foul. However if exactly the same thing happens and the push causes A1 to go Out of bounds, Off-sides, step into the crease, move past the goal making him miss a scoring opportunity, loose possession or the push comes after A1 shoots or passes and the push was not a violent hit (IBC); Call the technical foul.
TPOAD(The Principle of Advantage Disadvantage) Advantage/disadvantage is best left to "judgment" calls, not to clear rule infractions. Judgment calls you can always say "Hey, it was my call and I don't think it was a push". You cannot say "Hey, B1 was clearly 5 feet over the line, but I'm not going to call it this time". Applying TPOAD is important in lacrosse because it keeps the game moving. If you called everything that was technically a rules violation even if there was no advantage gained, a high school game would take 2.5 hours. Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
OVERLY AGGRESSIVE OVER THE LINE AGGRESSIVE NOT VIOLENT MORE VIOLENT Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls OVERLY AGGRESSIVE OVER THE LINE AGGRESSIVE NOT VIOLENT MORE VIOLENT
Pushing or Illegal Body Check or Unnecessary Roughness Illegal pushing includes pushing an opponent from the rear, pushing an opponent who is neither in possession or within 5 yards of a loose ball, pushing with anything other than a closed hand, shoulder or forearm or with a free hand not on the crosse. Pushing is legal when done from the front or side when the opponent has possession or within 5 yards of a loose ball. Look for both hands on crosse and gloved hands together. Pushing is considered to be force applied after contact is made. If it’s a violent blow (Punching) it should be a personal foul for IBC (Illegal Body check) or UR (unnecessary roughness). PUSHING with hands apart using the shaft is a Personal foul: Cross Check, or throwing a forearm shiver with a free arm is an IBC. Anything too violent could be an intent to injure and be unsportsmanlike and made non-releasable. Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
We have to get pushing from rear on sidelines trying to force an opponent OOB (out of bounds), same on end lines, pushing in rear to shove an opponent over midfield line offside or pushing into crease. If opponent gets pushed from rear and stumbles, losing ball or pushed past a good angle when shooting on the goal, throw the flag. Also after a shooter releases a shot or pass and his defender shoves, pushes from the rear or side after the ball is greater than 5 yards away from the shooter and the shove/ push is not violent but causes the shooter to fall to ground or stumble badly: call a Play- On, loose ball push or interference if the check was from front or side and give the ball back to the shooter’s team. If the hit was real late and violent call IBC or UR. Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls • Illegal Body Check (IBC) Rule 5 Section 3 • Body checking of an opponent who is not in possession of the ball or within five yards of a loose ball. • Avoidable body check of an opponent after he has passed or shot the ball. • Body checking of an opponent from the rear or at or below the waist
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Illegal Body Check (IBC) Rule 5 Section 3 • Body checking of an opponent by a player in which contact is made above the shoulders. The initial contact shall determine whether a body check is legal– spinning or ducking player! • To be legal such a body check shall be below the neck and both hands of the player applying the check shall remain in contact with his crosse—No one armed shivers! • Body checking of an opponent who has any part of his body other then his feet on the ground. • Blocking of an opponent with the head or initiating contact with the head (spearing) Minimum of a one-minute non-releaseable penalty will be accessed for spearing.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls IBC  You are body checking a passer or shooter and, at the moment of contact, you are more than 5 yards from the ball. If the player has thrown a pass / shot at 30 mph (not a particularly fast pass), then the ball is traveling 44 feet per second. Therefore, you have about 1/3 of a second from the release of the pass or shot (a little longer than the blink of an eye) to complete the bodycheck, otherwise, your big hit will be penalized for being late. You are body checking someone who has set a legal pick on you and you knew that the pick was there. If you steamrolled him anyway, then your big hit is unnecessary roughness. (The same would be true if the opponent was standing under a buddy pass, waiting for it to come to earth.) You are sliding to cover a potential shooter and you make contact before the ball is within 5 yards. If the feeder fakes a pass, the feeder passes to someone else, the pass is wild or the pass is knocked down by your teammate, then this body check is illegal.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls IBC  Your timing is good, but you took a 5 or 10 yard run at your opponent; in this case, you could be penalized for unnecessary roughness. You have only one hand on your crosse. Hockey and football players make this mistake sometimes. Your body check makes a loud sound and your opponent goes flying. Many officials will flag this for unnecessary roughness, under the theory that body checking is allowed to take an opponent out of the play, but not to take him out of the game. This judgment depends a lot upon the level of play, with collegiate players being allowed to hit harder than junior high school players.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls IBC • So we have team A and team B. And player A and player B. Team A is dominating team B in face-offs the whole game. Then team B sends out player B, a gigantor defender to take the face-offs. After lining up for the faceoff player A clamps the ball, but player B stands up, gets on the balls of his feet and decks player A and doesn't even attempt a clamp. Is this illegal or just unethical? • As long as he hits Team A's player between his waist and shoulders in the front it's legal, which is hard if Team A attempts a clamp, because he's bent over. I would call loose ball push if he extends his arms. • Also if either of his gloved hands is touching the ground it’s illegal body check. Body checking an opponent who has any part of his body other than his feet in contact with the ground is illegal. NCAA 5-4-d; NFHS 5-3-5
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Unnecessary Roughness (Rule 5 Section 8) • An Excessively Violent infraction of the rules against holding and pushing • Deliberate and Excessively Violent contact made by a defensive player against an offensive player who has established a screening position. • Any avoidable act on the part of a player that is Deliberate and Excessively Violent, whether with the body or the crosse. May include a legal body check • A check delivered with the gloved hand or hands may not be delivered with Punching Blow.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Unnecessary Roughness The NFHS rulebook uses words that are subject to a lot of interpretation by the official. The rules for Unnecessary Roughness (Rule 5-8-3) use the words "an avoidable act...that is deliberate AND excessively violent.....may include a legal body check". In other words, if the official believes that the body check ("hit") as you describe it was unnecessary in order to gain possession of the ball, then he could call UR. Experience is that officials are not always in agreement with the interpretation of these words. In our KLOA Association, we should go by the rule of thumb "you can take someone out of the play, but you can't take him out of the game". It seems to work pretty well.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Unnecessary Roughness Also in the high school rules, (Rule 5-8, Situation C) the rulebook adds the word "vulnerable". Although, again, this word is subject to a lot of interpretation by the official, it is specifically meant to protect the safety of players who are not expecting to be body-checked. The rulebook mentions two specific situations where this "vulnerability" is likely to occur. First is the "buddy pass“ in 5.8 situation C, and the second situation is when a player is entering the field of play from either the penalty box or the special substitution box (5.8 situation D & E). Since the player's entry onto the field may not be expected by his participating opponent, he could be considered vulnerable. Can a player released from the box, immediately body check an opponent? No Can you body check an opponent who is the recipient of a buddy pass? No
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Unnecessary Roughness In applying this vulnerability rule, we can sometimes include a third situation not mentioned specifically in the rulebook but ties into UR. That is, a player with his head down, scooping a ground ball. This player could be considered "vulnerable" and the UR rules would apply. Again, the check would have to be "avoidable" and this word is a very difficult word to define. You can be pretty certain that if you really clobber somebody that is trying to pick up the ball and has his head down doing it, you stand a very good chance of being called for unnecessary roughness.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls UR • I've called UR in high school games when a player in possession who is smallish/relatively unskilled is "legally" checked "unnecessarily" hard by a larger more athletic player, particularly if the hit is well away from the goal.However, I temper the flag with the distance from the goal. I use the Solar System analogy with the goal being the sun. I'll throw the flag at Pluto but not at Mercury. "The closer you get to the sun, the hotter it gets!“ • Any act on the part of a player that is deliberate and excessively violent, whether it be with the body or crosse.“ NFHS goes on to explicitly say that this may include a body check which is otherwise legal.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls I don't really like the idea of calling plays differently based on the relative size of the player. Being big is an advantage in a contact sport. This is a frequent objection, but it holds no water. If you're bigger, you can easily knock people down and separate them from the ball. That's an inherent advantage of being bigger.You cannot, however, use your additional size to attempt to injure the smaller player. If you're hitting that player significantly harder than is necessary to put him on the ground and separate him from the ball, then it's unnecessary roughness. Don't think the UR rule puts larger players at a disadvantage, it just requires them to use some discretion. If you get the sense that the larger more athletic player is more interested in delivering a vicious blow than procuring the ball, I flag it as being unnecessarily rough. Correct me if I'm wrong, but I'm pretty sure there's no rule in NCAA or NHFS that addresses "leaving the feet" when hitting someone> no but i consider leaving one's feet to meet one of my requisites for the "unnecessary" aspect of UR
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Cross Checking Rule 5 Section 2 A player may not check his opponent with his crosse in crosse-check position. That is, a check with that part of his handle of the crosse that is between the player’s hands, either by thrusting away from the body or by holding it extended from the body.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls • What is the difference between a cross check and a cross check hold. • EXPLANATION: The cross check is a blow, one that “bends the spine.” You asses a one minute foul as this can cause injury. (See above: bending the spine.) The cross check hold is a maneuver which takes the “player’s move away.” The first presents a physical threat to the ball carrier. The second should not lead to injury but it will alter the outcome of the game.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Tripping Rule 5 Section 7
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Tripping Rule 5 Section 7 • A player may not trip a player with any part of his body or crosse. • Tripping is obstructing an opponent at or below the waist with the crosse, hands, arms, feet or legs, by any POSITIVE PRIMARY ACTION if the obstructing player is on his feet or by any secondary action when the player is not on his feet. • When a player legally checks the crosse of an opponent and he result is to cause the opponent to trip over his own crosse, No Foul has been committed. Same No FOUL when a player is attempting to scoop a loose ball and opponent trips over the crosse.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Holding NFHS Rule 6 Section 3
NFHS Rule 6 Section 3 Holding Art. 1.. A player shall not impede the movement of an opponent or his crosse Art. 2. A player may not: Use the portion of the handle that is between his hands to hold an opponent Step on the crosse of an opponent Hold an opponent with his crosse Hold or pin an opponent’s crosse against the body of the opponent with his crosse. Art. 3. Holding is permitted under the following conditions: An opponent with possession of the ball or within 5 yards of a loose ball maybe held from the front or side An opponent with possession of the ball maybe played with a hold check from the rear if the hold exerts no more than equal pressure. For both (a) and (b) a hold check shall be done with either closed hand, shoulder or forearm and both hands shall be on the crosse. A player may hold the crosse of an opponent with his crosse when that opponent has possession of the ball. A player within 5 yards of a loose ball may hold the crosse of his opponent with his own crosse. Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
Holding A player can’t hold a player’s body with his stick, free hand or leg. Stick-to-stick and body-to-body contact is sometimes legal. Stick-to-body and body-to-stick contact is never legal (that doesn't mean it's called every time--TPOAD and all--but it's never legal). Player must be close to player in possession and have both hands on crosse using shoulder or forearm or hands held close together to apply equal pressure (not a punch which could be violent of personal foul nature). Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
SITUATIONS and RULINGS on HOLDING A1 is within five yards of a loose ball. B1 holds A1’s crosse with his crosse, preventing A1 from participating in the play. RULING: Legal hold. A1 has the ball in his possession. a) A1 has his crosse held by B1’s crosse which prevents him from performing his normal function. RULING: Legal hold. b) B1 holds A1’s crosse against A1’s body, restraining A1’s movement. RULING: Holding by B1. c) B2, with gloved hand over end of the crosse, is exerting equal pressure from the rear against A1, thus preventing him from advancing toward goal. RULING: Legal Play. d) B1, with gloved hand over end of the crosse, is exerting pressure sure from the rear against A1. B1 exerts enough pressure to force A1 to move away from goal. RULING: Technical foul against B1. Only equal pressure may be used. 6. A1 takes a post position and holds his crosse in front of him a) with the head of the crosse resting on the ground. A2 cuts around A1, and B2, pursuing A2, falls over A1’s crosse. RULING: Technical foul against A1, illegal screening position. b) extended in front of him. A2 cuts around A1, and B2, pursuing A2, runs into the extended crosse and is held back by A1 ‘s crosse. RULING: Technical foul against A1, holding. Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Warding Off NFHS Rule 6 Section 11
Warding Off NFHS Rule 6 Section 11 The player in possession of the ball may not use his free hand or other part of his body to hold, push, or otherwise control the direction or movement of his opponent’s crosse or body of the player applying the check. A player in possession may protect his crosse with his hand, arm or other part of his body when his opponent makes a play to check his crosse. Remember the player must be in possession for a ward. MECHANIC: “Advantage and Disadvantage.” Coaches are going to scream regardless, so you should learn how to ignore them. But if the movement gives the offensive player an advantage, then you should make the call. Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls If a defender puts the head of his stick under an offensive player’s arm and the offensive player lifts his arm over the defender’s stick, that does not constitute a WARD unless he subsequently uses that arm to push or direct the defender’s crosse.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Warding Off • If you body check a player when you have the ball, they obviously don't have it and aren't within 5 yards of a loose ball. That makes it technically an illegal body check. • This is typically not called, but when you initiate helmet contact, well, that typically is calledin other words, and at the very least, you could be called for warding off....although depending upon the severity of the contact IBC or even UR are optional.
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Warding Off NFHS Rule 6 Section 11 "Playing with the free hand" is not a phrase used in the rules at the NCAA or NFHS level. You can play with one hand off the stick.However, you can't really do much with that hand off the stick (it ends up being an illegal push or hold or a ward in most cases), and in fact even if you aren't using the hand it makes some actions illegal (a body check, push, or hold with one hand on the stick is automatically illegal even if it would otherwise be legal with both hands on the stick).
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls A quick guide for new(er) officials that was passed down to me was: the attacker has the right to untangle himself from the defender's stick, but he can't use his arm to move/push/etc the stick or block a check
HOLDING or WARDING To often the long stick goes under the attackers arm and the defender lifts the attacking players arm - most of the time there is no call from the official (albeit several warding calls from sideline) - I think that officials as a group need to start calling a hold when this defensive action impedes the movement of his opponent. warding is defined by a couple of words, "controls the opponents crosse". When officials looked for that, not just an arm moving there is no problem with making the correct call. if the defender gets his stick under the arm and the attacker lifts his arm away - it is NOT a ward - despite the cacophony of "warding!" calls it elicits from the sidelines and stands. At the time this interaction is occurring, you need to make sure that the defender doesn't lift and pull back on the arm (holding) and that the attackman doesn't clamp down on the defender's stick (holding). It's just one of the humorous things I see and hear on the field, the tolerance level for various fouls. Warding is one of the lowest tolerance fouls out there, and everyone thinks they know how to call it. Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
You must have possession to ward. Using your arm to hold off a stick check by an opponent in a loose ball situation is holding. "A player shall not impede the movement of an opponent or his crosse. [The rule then provides for exceptions not applicable here]“ It most likely is either holding or pushing. You cannot impede (hold) or push an opposing player unless both hands are on the crosse. Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
Holding or NotIf, however, the defender makes no effort to remove his stick from the entanglement, and he "lifts" the arm in such a way as to impede the free movement of the offensive player, this is an easy call and a flag will be thrown.I guess my inclination is to call it a hold if the attacker is disadvantaged, even if the entanglement was unintentional, since the entanglement is the result of an action initiated by the defender The defender most the time is not still making contact with the stick. He simply has the attackers arm (now off the stick) hooked and held. The defender is lifting the arm - the attacker is trying to get his arm away but because the defender continues to forcibly lift the arm the attacker can not get it away and therefore is not free to move as he wants. Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Unsportsmanlike Conduct or Behavior NFHS Rule 5 Section 9
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Unsportsmanlike Conduct or Behavior NFHS Rule 5 Section 9 No player, substitute, non-playing member of a squad, coach or anyone officially connected with a competing team shall: • Enter in an argument with an official as to any decision that has been made or in any way attempt to influence the decision of the official. • Use threatening, profane, or obscene language or gestures at any time during the game. • Bait or call attention to oneself, or any other act considered unsportsmanlike by the officials. • Penalty to above items 1-3 minutes Non-Releaseable penalties in all cases
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Unsportsmanlike Conduct or Behavior Cont’d No player, substitute, non-playing member of a squad, coach or anyone officially connected with a competing team shall: • Repeatedly committing the same technical foul • A player deliberately failing to return to the field after leaving the field of play while a legal player in the game. • As a substitute, deliberately fail to comply with the rules for entering the field of play. • Penalty to above items 1-3 minutes releaseable penalties in all cases
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls NFHS Rule 6 Section 6 Conduct Foul
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls NFHS Rule 6 Section 6 Conduct Foul • Conduct only applies to objecting to Official’s decisions, (not taunting or foul language) or Coaches leaving the coaches area or players leaving bench area (coming onto the field to argue)
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls The Conduct Foul • The rules do allow for a conduct foul against a player who argues, objects or gesture to calls or non-calls. • Call the conduct foul and take the ball away if the infraction is apparent but not worthy of a one minute non-releasable foul? • Escalating Steps on Conduct situations: Call • Conduct foul while team has possession, take ball away. • Conduct foul : time serving 30 second technical foul • Unsportsmanlike Conduct personal foul: 1-3 minutes non-releasable. • 2nd Unsportsmanlike Conduct foul and ejection: 3 minutes non-releasable
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls If the youngster acts the part of the fool, call him for a one minute non-releasable foul. But do not be baited by his subsequent actions. Let the coach get him on the bench and try to settle him down before assessing a second, and final, foul resulting in ejection
Personal Fouls and Technical Fouls Good Officiating tips to live by: • “Proper Preparation Prevents Poor Performance” • “If you are not getting better - you must be getting worse.” • “It is not who you are - it is who people think you are.”