ACTIVE DIRECTORY By Ekrima Abdelghani
ACTIVE DIRECTORY • Microsoft Directory service • Initially released in 1999 • Originally designed for Windows 2000 Server • Enhanced with Windows Server 2008 and Windows server 2012
ACTIVE DIRECTORY • Active Directory is a Directory Service which Contains Information of All User Accounts and Shared Recourses on a Network. • A directory service (DS) is a software application- or a set of applications - that stores and organizes information about a computer network's users and network resources. • Active Directory is a Centralized Hierarchical Directory Database • Allows network administrators to manage users' access to the resources • Act as an abstraction layer between users and shared resources
What Is Active Directory? Active Directory Directory service functionality Centralized management • Organize • Manage • Control • Single point of administration Resources
PURPOSE OF ACTIVE DIRECTORY 1.Provide User Logon and Authentication Services 2.To organize and manage: User Accounts Computers Groups and Network Resources 3 Enables authorized Users to easily locate: Network Resources
FEATURES OF ACTIVE DIRECTORY 1.Fully Integrated Security 2.Easy Administration using Group Policy 3.Scalable to any Size Network 4.Flexible NEW FEATURES IN ACTIVE DIRECTORY • Provide file shares. • Authenticate users • Control access to services and shares • Provide services, such as Email, Access to the internet, • Print services etc.
How Directory Service Evolved Earlier we had no DATABASE Standard So ITU & ISO introduced X.500 Server (Directory System Agent) Backup Server Directory Info Base Directory Info Tree DOP DAP Directory Organization Management Protocol Client (Directory User Agent)
DAP Directory Access Protocol is based on OSI Layers LDAP Lightweight Directory Access Protocol based on TCP/IP Layer DAP was introduced in BANYAN VINES It named the Database as STREET TALK LDAP was first Introduced in NOVELL Novell named it NDS ( Network Directory Services
Logical Structure of Active Directory FOREST TREE Parent/Root Child/Branch
Domains: Trees, Forests, Trusts, and Outs Active Directory is made up of one or more domains. Creating the initial domain controller in a network also creates the domain—you cannot have a domain without at least one domain controller. Each domain in the directory is identified by a DNS domain name. You use the Active Directory Domains and Trusts tool to manage domains. Domains: Trees, Forests Active Directory is made up of one or more domains. Creating the initial domain controller in a network also creates the domain—you cannot have a domain without at least one domain controller. Each domain in the directory is identified by a DNS domain name. You use the Active Directory Domains and Trusts tool to manage domains.
TREE • In the Windows 2003 operating system, a tree is a set of one or more domains with contiguous names. • If more than one domain exists, you can combine the multiple domains into hierarchical tree structures. • The first domain created is the root domain of the first tree. • Additional domains in the same domain tree are child domains. • A domain immediately above another domain in the same domain tree is its parent.
FOREST • Multiple domain trees within a single forest do not form a contiguous namespace; that is, they have noncontiguous DNS domain names. • Although trees in a forest do not share a namespace, a forest does have a single root domain, called the forest root domain. • The forest root domain is, by definition, the first domain created in the forest. • The two forest-wide predefined groups—Enterprise administrators and Schema administrators—reside in this domain.
(Tree Root) (Forest/Tree Root) CISCO.COM MCSE.COM CCNA.CISCO.COM (Child Domain) FOREST Forest Tree Tree
Physical Components of Active Directory Domain Controllers Sites
zoom.com WAN Link India USA Sites Subnets are associated with sites A site can span multiple domains A domain can Span multiple sites