FAA/JAA/TCCA Collaborative Research Update Luc Angerand, JAA Eugene Hill, FAA Maher Khouzam, TCCA
Objectives • Provide status of cooperative research activities • Coordinating Committee • Fire and Cabin Safety • Aircraft Icing • Human Factors • Identify next steps • Gain and maintain management support • Solicit feedback
Research Coordination Purpose: Promote international collaboration on safety research: • to reduce costs to the individual authorities • to ensure harmonization of research results • Program Structure: Promotes communication through targeted technical committees, which report to a coordination committee that keeps FAA/JAA/TCCA management informed progress and status yearly.
Coordinating Committee Activities • Held Annual Meeting in January ‘02 • Status of Technical Teams • Need for 2 additional technical teams • Aircraft Advanced Structural Materials • Aircraft Interior Environmental Quality • Need to define safety and cost implication of security concerns • Implemented Research Coordination Website http://aar400.tc.faa.gov/aar430/faa.htm
Coordinating Committee Plans • Next annual meeting Jan ‘03 • Get up date on Tech Teams activities • Review status on Security initiatives • Evaluate additional needs
CSRTG – Mission • Objective: Enhance uniformity, cost-effectiveness & timeliness of cabin/fire safety research through: • Systematic joint identification, prioritization, definition & coordination of research programs/projects • Conduct of cooperative/joint/complementary programs • Focus: ‘Acute’ events which can be addressed by changes within / closely associated with the cabin (chronic matters not addressed) • Areas Addressed: • Post-Crash Safety (crash protection, fire/egress, water / environmental survival) • In-flight Safety (fire, decompression, turbulence, medical emergencies) … Issue: what threat(s) must we “protect against”?
CSRTG – Main Areas of Interest • Materials Fire Safety • Systems Fire Safety • Evacuation • Crash Dynamics • Operational Issues
CSRTG – Selected R&D Topics • Research: • Thermal/Acoustic Insulation Flammability • Fuselage Burnthrough Resistance • On-Board Inert Gas / Oxygen Generation Systems (OBIGGS/OBOGS) • Full-Scale Evacuation Experiments • Evacuation Modeling • Supporting: • Accident Databases • Prioritization • Benefit Analysis
Contact Specifics Research Regulatory FAA Jeff Gardlin FAA-NWM Dick Hill Tech Center Mac McLean CAMI JAA Graham Greene Ray Cherry UK-CAA Stephane Deharvengt Gregory Caudy F-DGAC Giorgio Sacco ENAC TCCA Claude Lewis AARDH JCAB Hiroaki Tomita CASA Julie Martin CSRTG – Membership • Member Authorities
CSRTG – Membership (cont’d) • Invited Authorities • IAC (Russia) – Accepted • CTA (Brazil) • CAAC (Peoples’ Republic of China) – Accepted
CSRTG – Harmonization Research Recent/On-Going – Main Issues • 25.813(c) Access to Type III Exits - ARAC ‘Fastrack’ (in support of Cabin Safety Harmonization Working Group) • OBIGGS/OBOGS • Fuel Tank Inerting - ARAC • Flammability of Hidden Materials (SW-111) • Detection/Suppression - Isolated Areas (SW-111) • Evacuation Trials • Evacuation Simulation
CSRTG – Harmonization Research Recent Accomplishments – Main Items • Thermal/Acoustic Insulation • Follow-on, Burnthrough Resistance AC (FAATC/CAA/TCCA) • Test Refinement / Round Robin Testing (FAA/CAA/DGAC) • Hidden Fire Benefit Analysis (RGW Cherry/CAA/FAA) International Coordination with Industry through: • Int’l A/C Materials Fire Test WG • Int’l A/C Fire Protection WG
CSRTG – Harmonization Research (cont’d) Future (Continuation/Expansion) – Main Areas • Fuselage Burnthrough Resistance • Flammability of Hidden Materials • Fire in Isolated Areas – Detection & Suppression • Evacuation Experiments – Large Airplanes (Cranfield Double-Deck Evacuation Simulator) • Evacuation Modeling (Expansion/Verification) • Expansion of Accident Database • Accident Database (Expansion)
CSRTG – Activities Recent • 3rd Triennial International Cabin/Fire Safety Research Conference • October 2001, Atlantic City, NJ, USA • Coordination Meetings (3-4 / Year) • June 2001, London, UK (CAA) • October 2001, Atlantic City, NJ, USA (FAA) • March 2002, Brisbane, Australia (CASA) • Evacuation Modeling Meeting • October 2001, Atlantic City, NJ, USA
CSRTG – Activities (cont’d) Planned/Future • Next Coordination Meeting • Fall 2002, Seattle, WA, US (FAA) • 4th Triennial International Cabin/Fire Safety Research Conference • Fall 2004, Europe (tentative venue: Portugal)
CSRTG – Benefits of Approach • Regulations/standards that are: • Better Harmonized • Achievable/practical • Cost-effective research – Maximum benefit from funding • Funding incentive/leverage • Knowledge sharing – Support for safety regulatory action, and certification • Consolidation of cabin/fire safety and occupant survivability research projects • Expansion of cooperation to other areas
Icing Research Technical Team • Research • Barry Myers, TC, • Paul Spooner, JAA-UK CAA • Jean-François Détienne, JAA-DGAC • James Riley, Edward Pugacz FAA, Team Secretary • Operations • Ron Tidey, TCCA – Dan Meier, FAA • J.C. Albert, JAA-DGAC-F* • Airworthiness • David Johns, TCCA – Gene Hill, FAA, Team Lead • Eric Duvivier, JAA-DGAC-F * additional members expected to join
JAA/FAA/TC Collaborative Icing Research • Collaborative icing research is guided by regulatory needs, special studies, e.g., CAST, JSSI, benefit assessment, or accident report Recommendations. • Categories of collaborative icing research focus include: • Aircraft de/anti-Icing. • Inflight icing. • Meteorology. • Training/information dissemination.
Airplane De/Anti-icing - Transport Canada • Ground de/anti-icing research roadmap developed. • Full-scale de/anti-icing fluid flow-off tests initiated: • Base-line clean wing performance testing completed. • Some takeoffs with fluids • Testing scheduled for next winter season. • Theoretical fluid flow-off model in-development. • Approval of ice detector for airplane de/anti-icing in-progress. • Evaluation of natural and artificial frost for anti-icing fluids standards in-work. • De/anti-icing terminology published. • SAE inflight and ground ice detector specifications approved. • Type I deicing fluid HOT testing protocol changed.
Inflight Icing Simulation • FAA • SAE ARP’s for icing tankers, icing wind tunnels, and droplet impingement/ice accretion codes developed. • New USAF Icing Tanker operational • NASA/IPHWG SLD Technology Roadmap Defined. • NASA IRT SLD calibration completed. • SLD impingement test completed by WSU. • FAA/NASA SLD test in ACT (Luton) icing wind tunnel completed. • JAA (CAA-UK) • Large droplet splash investigation let to Cranfield University
Meteorology • FAA • FAA/NCAR Integrated Icing Diagnosis Algorithm adopted by the National Weather Service. • FAA/NCAR Integrated Icing Forecast Algorithm available on ADDS web-site. • Ground Radar Icing Detection System contract let to NOAA. • Database to define SLD environment provided to the IPHWG. • Canada/US Icing Research Alliance, FAA and others AIRS I icing sensor field study completed. • TCCA Terminal Area Icing Forecasting and Detection • New in-situ snow rate gauge. • Snow rate (moisture content) study. • JAA/DGAC-F Inflight Icing Conditions Forecast Program initiated (completion 2004) • Improved forecasts • Teledetection • Cloud microphysics • Identification method validation (DGAC-F and Meteo-France, in collaboration with Canadian Meteorological Services).
Training/Information Dissemination • JAA (DGAC-F) • Flightcrew Icing Training Handbook available. • Icing simulations introduced in pilot type rating programs. • Inclusion of inflight icing curriculum in pilot recurrent training recommended. • Icing information dissemination assured between meteorologists, flightcrews, and air traffic control. • Harmonization on the use of “icing severity” by the global aviation community addressed (not yet coordinated within JAA, but with the FAA). • FAA • Pilot Guide: Inflight Icing Advisory Circular release pending legal review. • NASA/FAA General Aviation computer-based inflight icing training module released. • Resolution of inconsistent operational inflight-icing regulatory and guidance terminology in-work, including “severe ice.”
Future Collaborative Icing Research • JAA (DGAC-F) • De/anti-icing ice detector validation and approval procedures. • Critical ice shape wind tunnel testing and ice shape roughness criteria (2004). • Rotorcraft blade ice shedding: • Simulation methods. • Ice protection system optimization. • Use of ice-phobic materials. • Development of means-of-compliance information • Research contract tendered during 2002. • Aerodynamic performance monitors development, evaluation, and approval procedures. • JAA (CAA-UK:) • SLD splashing physics. • Europe/Canada/United States • Improved icing conditions diagnosis and forecast. • SAE AS5485 revisions • Revised Type I fluid testing protocol. • Artificial vs. natural snow use for holdover time (HOT). • SAE HOT chart format revisions • Type I fluid data expansion. • Consolidation of Type I and IV fluid data. • Surface finish effects on HOT.
Future Collaborative Icing Research (cont..) • Transport Canada • Flight testing of de/anti-icing fluid flow-off aerodynamic effects. • Type I deicing fluid in-service study. • Effects of new deicing systems on anti-icing fluid holdover time. • Approved ice detector use during airplane de/anti-icing. • Canada/US Icing Research Alliance, FAA, and others • AIRS II icing sensor field study (2003/2004). • SAE G-12 Committee • re-evaluation of anti-icing fluid flow-off aerodynamic acceptance requirements. • JAA/FAA 2003 Environmental Icing Workshop • FAA • SLD simulation, impingement physics, and liquid water content measurement. • McKinley Climatic Laboratory (Eglin AFB) icing simulation facility development support. • Refinement of artificial snow methods for anti-icing fluids standards. • Mixed-phase icing physics and finite-wing ice accretion aerodynamic effects wind tunnel tests. • Ground-based radar icing detection system (GRIDS) development. • Down-linking of in-service icing conditions encounters.
Human Factors Technical Team • Research • Tom McCloy, FAA • Sue Baker, JAA-UK CAA • Isabelle Marcil, TC-TDC • Stéphane Deharvengt, JAA-DGAC-F • Regulatory • Stéphane Deharvengt, JAA-DGAC-F • Loran Haworth, FAA • Don Stephen TBD, TCCA
Accomplishments to Date — Human Factors — • Met Oct. 19,2001 in Boston in conjunction with the FAA/JAA HF Harmonization WG and discussed progress and future activities on the joint Electronic Flight Bag and Certification of New Flight Deck Interfaces project. • Transport Canada presented their fatigue research program at the Jan. 23,2002 HF Technical Team meeting in Florida.
Areas of Common Interest — Human Factors — • Electronic Flight Bag • Certification of New Flight Deck Interfaces • Mixed Crews (Merging of Operators, Culture and Language) • Fatigue (pilots, mechanics, ATC) • Advanced ATM Systems--Airborne Aspects • HUD Symbology • Non-technical Skills Evaluation, e.g., CRM • Primary Flight Displays – potential new area of joint concern
Selected Research Topics - Human Factors - • The results of the application of the methodology will be presented to the FAA/JAA HF Harmonization Working Group
Future Activities - Human Factors - • Continue to coordinate JAA New Flight Deck Interface and FAA EFB research projects • Address additional cooperative efforts, especially Mixed Crews (culture and language),Primary Flight Displays, and Maintenance Fatigue and Performance • Meet to discuss, in depth, each others research programs and develop more effective ways to share information Note -Main emphasis on 2nd and 3rd bullets as JAA New Flight Deck Interface project is on hold
CommentsPlease • Need for 2 additional technical teams • Aircraft Advanced Structural Materials • Aircraft Interior Environmental Quality • Need to define safety and cost implication of security concerns • Open to Floor for Other Concerns