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Lecture #5 PowerPoint Presentation

Lecture #5

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Lecture #5

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  1. Lecture #5 Water and ocean structure 22 August 2007

  2. Lecture schedule LectureDateTime 1. Introduction to scientific writing 8/20 9:00-10:20 2. How to write a scientific paper in English 8/20 15:00-16:20 3. Earth structure and plate tectonics 8/21 9:00-11:00 4. Circulation of the atmosphere 8/21 13:00-15:00 5. Water and ocean structure 8/22 10:00-11:00 6. Continental margins and ocean basins 8/22 13:00-15:00 7. Sediment 8/23 10:00-12:00 8. Marine resources 8/23 13:00-14:00 9. Circulation of the ocean 8/24 11:00-12:30

  3. The water molecule is held together by chemical bonds • Atom • the smallest particle of an element that exhibits the characteristics of that element electrons (-) helium atom neutrons (no charge) protons (+)

  4. Element • a substance composed of identical atoms • cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical means http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Periodic_table.svg

  5. The water molecule is held together by chemical bonds • Atom • the smallest particle of an element that exhibits the characteristics of that element • Element • a substance composed of identical atoms • cannot be broken into simpler substances by chemical means • Molecule • > 2 atoms held together by chemical bonds • examples = oxygen (O2) • water (H2O)

  6. Chemical bonds • form when atoms share electrons 2 hydrogen atoms 1 oxygen atom 1 water molecule H2O + covalent bonds

  7. Examples of covalent bonds carbon dioxide CO2 methane gas CH4 atmospheric oxygen O2 http://www.its.caltech.edu/~atobias/o2molecule.gif http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/oxygen.gif

  8. Because of the way the water molecule’s oxygen atoms are distributed, the shape of the molecule is “bent” Electrically asymmetric _ +

  9. attracts - + • behaves like a magnet • called a “polar molecule” attracts - + Hydrogen bond • about 5-10% as strong as a covalent bond • allow water molecules to stick to each other cohesion

  10. Cohesion gives water a high surface tension Hydrogen bonds make this possible water strider http://content.answers.com/main/content/wp/en-commons/thumb/6/6b/250px-Wasserläufer_bei_der_Paarung_crop.jpg

  11. What would happen if there were no hydrogen bonds?

  12. What would happen if there were no hydrogen bonds? At normal temperatures and pressure, H20 would form a gas rather than a liquid hydrogen sulfide (H2S) http://www.uwosh.edu/faculty_staff/xie/molecules/h2s-2.gif

  13. Question Time! • What holds molecules together?

  14. Question Time! • What holds molecules together? • 2.Why is water a polar molecule?

  15. heat = temperature Water has unusual thermal characteristics • heat= energy produced by the random vibration of atoms/molecules • measured by • how many molecules are vibrating • how rapidly they are vibrating heat • temperature • measured in degrees

  16. Temperature • a number related to the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance • Heat • a measurement of the total energy in a substance • = kinetic energy + potential energy

  17. Bathtub of hot water Candle Which one has • higher temperature? • more heat?

  18. Bathtub of hot water Candle Which one has  • higher temperature? Molecules vibrate very rapidly, but very few • more heat?

  19. Bathtub of hot water Candle Which one has  • higher temperature? Molecules vibrate very rapidly, but very few  • more heat? Molecules vibrate more slowly, but there are many of them

  20. Heat capacity • the heat (measured in calories) required to raise 1 gram of a substance 1o Celsius • different substances have different heat capacities very high • due to large # of hydrogen bonds * water can absorb (or release) large amounts of heat while changing very little in temperature

  21. heat capacity water high sand low

  22. heat capacity water high sand low

  23. Water’s temperature affects its density. Where is the warmest water in a tub ? • at the surface • cold water tends to sink But, where does ice form in a lake? at the surface http://www-personal.umich.edu/~jensenl/visuals/album/2006/ice/IMG_8011.JPG

  24. Density curve shows the relationship between temperature (or salinity) and density 4oC Ice is less dense than liquid water – and thus floats – because the molecules are packed less efficiently. freezing point

  25. water ice angle = 109o angle = 104o

  26. The three states of water to melt to evaporate gas (water vapor) solid (ice) liquid to freeze to condense

  27. gas solid liquid Temperature <0oC 0-100oC >100oC Molecular movement fast fastest slow Density low highest lowest

  28. When heat goes into a substance, one of two things can happen: • rise in temperature • increased kinetic energy + energy or substance • change in state • increased potential energy

  29. States of water to evaporate to melt gas (water vapor) solid (ice) liquid to freeze to condense • very high • all hydrogen bonds must be broken The term latent applies to heat input that does not cause a temperature change but does produce a change of state.

  30. Summary

  31. Question Time! How is heat different from temperature?

  32. Surface water moderates global temperature The tendency of a substance to resist a change in temperature with the gain or loss of heat energy is called thermal inertia. Low thermal inertia High thermal inertia Range: -2o – 32o -90o– 50o

  33. Heat No change No change Temperature

  34. Norfolk Wind direction San Francisco

  35. Annual freezing and thawing of ice moderate Earth’s temperature adds 80 calories of heat energy/g liquid water solid (ice) liquid removes 80 calories of heat energy/g liquid water • >18,000 km3 of polar ice thaws and refreezes in the Southern Hemisphere each year • in summer, ice melts, but ocean temperature does not change • in winter, water freezes, but ocean temperature does not change Seasonal extremes are moderated.

  36. Movement of water vapor from tropics to poles also moderates Earth’s temperature • poleward transfer of heat • 2/3 by air • 1/3 by ocean currents

  37. Global warming may be influencing ocean-surface temperature and salinity S N • tropical ocean < 1000 meters is becoming warmer and saltier • water in the far north and south has become fresher

  38. Ocean-surface conditions depend on latitude, temperature,and salinity Evaporation > precipitation Precipitation > evaporation Evaporation > precipitation

  39. Sea surface temperature Sea surface salinity

  40. The ocean is stratified by density. Freshwater density = 1.000 g/cm3 Seawater density = 1.020-1.030 g/cm3 • Seawater density is a function of: • temperature • salinity • pressure most important cold, salty water warm, less salty water is more dense than

  41. The ocean is stratified into three density zones by temperature and salinity • Surface zone • (mixed layer) • 0-150/1000 m Pycnocline Deep zone

  42. Pycnocline: zone in which density increases with increasing depth. http://epswww.unm.edu/facstaff/zsharp/103/lecture%2015-16,%20oceans%20I_files/image010.gif The pycnocline is a combination of the thermocline andhalocline.

  43. Thermocline in the Central Pacific http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a000200/a000280/thermo_actual_9706.jpg

  44. Thermocline in Lake Biwa, Japan http://www.lbri.go.jp/biwakoview/english/nb/image/02.gif

  45. The thermocline form varies with latitude.

  46. The thermocline form varies seasonally.

  47. A water mass is a body of water with characteristic temperature and salinity, and therefore density. These layers are distinct water masses Density stratification usually prevents vertical water movement.

  48. Refraction can bend the paths of light and sound through water Why does it bend?

  49. Refraction can bend the paths of light and sound through water Why does it bend? Due to a difference in density