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Biology EOC Highlight Review

Biology EOC Highlight Review

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Biology EOC Highlight Review

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  1. Biology EOC Highlight Review

  2. Organic CompoundsOrganic = Carbon • All living things are made of organic compounds. • Contain the element CARBON • Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, Nucleic Acids THESE ARE THE FOUR MAJOR MARCRO MOLECULES

  3. Carbohydrates • Monomer-(SUBUNIT) • monosaccharide • Function- energy source and structure • Tests: glucose-Benedicts starch- Iodine- Turns bluish black • Ex. Cellulose, glycogen, starch

  4. CARBOHYDRATESInportant Facts • STARCH IS STORED IN PLANTS • GLYCOGEN IS STORED IN ANIMALS • CELLULOSE IS THE MAJOR COMPONENT OF THE CELL WALL • STARCH IS MORE COMPLEX THAN GLUCOSE • Sugars end in : ose--glucose • Enzymes end in : ase--lactase

  5. Lipids • Made of fatty acids and glycerol • Function- energy storage and insulation • Tests: brown paper test , potato chips on a napkin will leave a greasey residue • Examples: fats and steroids Example: Bears store fat to hibernate Lipid vs. water

  6. Nucleic Acids • Monomer- nucleotide consist of a Sugar, Phosphate and a Base • Function- carry genetic information • Ex. DNA and RNA

  7. Proteins • Monomer- amino acids • Function- building and repairing cells, communication, transport, and regulation REPAIR AND GROWTH • Tests- Biurets • Examples: enzymes, hemoglobin

  8. Enzymes • Catalysts in living things- CONTROLS RATE • SPECIFIC • Specific to a particular substrate • Reusable • Affected by temperature and Ph • “LOCK AND KEY”

  9. Prokaryotes Simple, no membrane bound organelles NO TRUE NUCLEUS Bacteria only One circular chromosome Includes: chromosome, ribosomes, and plasma membrane Eukaryotes Membrane bound organelles Plants and Animals True nucleus containing chromosomes Cells

  10. Nucleus • “Control Center”—GENETIC INJORMATION • Contains chromosomes • If you studied Biotechnology this is the structure you would be most interested in • Protein Synthesis begins here (DNA)

  11. “Powerhouse” of the cell Produces energy in the form of ATP Site of Aerobic respiration ENERGY This organelle has its own DNA Contains membraneous folds that increase SURFACE AREA MitochondriaSingular: Mitochondrion

  12. Site of photosynthesis Plant cells ONLY Contains the pigment chlorophyll Contains Thyakoids and Stroma Chloroplast

  13. Vacuole • Storage of excess materials • Plant cells usually contain one large vacuole

  14. Ribosomes • Proteins are synthesized • Found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes

  15. Surrounds the cell Regulates what enters/leaves the cell Helps maintain homeostasis Made of phospholipids with embedded proteins Plasma Membraneaka: Cell Membrane

  16. Cell Wall • Plant cells ONLY • Surrounds cell and provides support and protection. • Made of cellulose

  17. Eukaryotes Plant Animal • Cell wall • Chloroplast • Large central vacuole

  18. Cell Organization Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Individual organism

  19. cells develop to perform different functions Regulated by genes Cell Specialization

  20. Chemical Signals (hormones) can be sent from one cell to another Receptor proteins on the plasma membrane receive the signal Cell to Cell Communication

  21. Diffusion • Form of passive transport (NO ENERGY NEEDED) across a membrane • Solutes move from high concentration to low concentration

  22. Osmosis • Diffusion of water (also passive transport) • Concentration of water determines the movement of the water from high to low

  23. Active Transport • Particles moving against the concentration gradient which REQUIRES ENERGY (ATP) • Low concentration to high concentration

  24. Energy storing molecule Can be used for quick energy by the cell Energy is stored in the phosphate bonds ATP

  25. Water and Carbon Dioxide used to produce Glucose and Oxygen H2O+CO2C6H12O6+O2 Occurs in the chloroplast Reactants are water and carbon dioxide Products are glucose and oxygen Photosynthesis

  26. Used to release energy (ATP) for cellular use C6H12O6+O2H2O+CO2 Occurs in the mitochondria Yields the most energy in Cellular Respiration Aerobic RespirationWITH OXYGEN

  27. Anaerobic Respirationaka Fermentation • Does not require Oxygen • also used to release energy, but not as efficient as aerobic respiration (less ATP) • Products include CO2 and lactic acid or alcohol • Two Types: Alcoholic Fermentation and Lactic Acid Fermentation

  28. Obtain energy from the environment Photosynthesis or chemosynthesis “Producers” Example: Plants Obtain energy from other living things “Consumers” Example: Humans Autotroph vs. Heterotroph

  29. DNA / RNA • Carry genetic information • Made of a chain of nucleotides • Nucleotides contain a sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen base

  30. DNA Double stranded “Double Helix” Four base pairs: ATGC Sugar is Deoxyribose Found in nucleus RNA Single stranded Four base pairs: AUCG Sugar is Ribose DNA / RNA

  31. Base Pair Rule • In DNA, Adenine always pairs with Thymine, and Guanine always pairs with Cytosine *Remember: Uracil is only in RNA and Thymine is only in DNA

  32. Replication • Making of an identical strand of DNA • The DNA must replicated before the cell divides

  33. Central Dogma DNA  RNA  protein  trait

  34. DNAmRNA Occurs in nucleus Complementary mRNA strand is produced from a segment of DNA Transcription

  35. Translation • Connects amino acids in the correct order to make a protein • Occurs in the cytoplasm within the ribosomes A- amino acid B- tRNA C- anticodon D- codon E- mRNA F- Ribosome G-polypeptide

  36. Codon • Sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that code for an amino acid

  37. Mutations • Change in DNA code • May cause a change in protein production • NOT always harmful • Mutagen is the cause changed Sickle Cell Mutation

  38. Cell division Produces two identical diploid daughter cells Occurs in body cells to grow and repair Remember Mitosis made my “TOES” Mitosis

  39. Cancer • Error in cell growth with causes uncontrolled cell growth • Has environment and genetic variables

  40. Cell division Produces four different haploid daughter cells (gametes) Occurs in sex cells to form gametes Remember meiosis made “”ME” Meiosis

  41. Homologous chromosomes exchange parts of their DNA Creates variation in gametes Crossing Over

  42. Nondisjunction • Homologous chromosomes fail to separate during meiosis • Can lead to Down Syndrome • Three Chromosomes in the 21st pair • “XXX”

  43. Asexual One parent Identical offspring Variation only thru mutations, less likely to survive chances Examples: budding, fragmentation, fission Sexual Two parents Offspring different from parents More variation Fertilization (fusion of gametes) Better chance of survial in a changing environment Asexual vs. SexualReproduction

  44. Inheritance • Traits are specific characteristics inherited from parents • Genes are the factors that determine traits • The different forms of a gene are called alleles

  45. Dominant/Recessive Alleles • Dominant alleles are expressed, if present, and recessive are hidden

  46. Homozygous Both alleles are the same Ex. BB or bb Heterozygous Both alleles are different Ex. Bb Genotypeactual alleles an individual has for a trait

  47. Phenotype • The actual characteristic displayed by the individual (ex. brown eyes, Hemophiliac) • THE WAY IT “LOOKS”

  48. Heterozygote shows a blending of the dominant and recessive phenotypes Incomplete Dominance

  49. Codominance • Heterozygote expresses BOTH dominant and recessive traits • Ex. Roan animals, Checkered Chicken

  50. Polygenic Traits • Traits are influenced by more than one gene • Ex. skin color