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Basic terms and concepts

Basic terms and concepts

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Basic terms and concepts

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  1. Basic terms and concepts • Photography is … • Inverse Square Law • Color Temperature • Mixing light sources • Filters (in camera, light mounted, window mounted) • Needs of camera / mood of shot / invisible • 3 point lighting (background, kicker) • Flat lighting, 2-point?, bounce? • Typical equipment • Spot or flood • Quartz, HSF or LED • Grid or light stands

  2. Key to Effective Lighting:Shadow • Shadow gives images form, weight, texture, mood, depth. Also reveals spatial relationships.

  3. 3 considerations before lighting • Key light placement – 180 degrees around subject • Quality of light – hard or soft • Shadow treatment – low key or high key

  4. Try to separate subject from background

  5. 3 results of light hitting object

  6. Typical 3 point lighting diagram

  7. 3 Attributes of Key Light • Primary source of illumination • Primary factor of overall exposure • Determines placement and quality of shadow

  8. Quality of Light • Refers to hard or soft quality of light • “Pin” or undiffused sources create hard shadows that fall off sharply (fresnel) • Soft light is created by using large sources of diffused light. • Determined by two attributes • Large source • Relatively close to subject

  9. Floor plan of Portrait Key Light Possibilities

  10. Subject lit from 3:00 Position

  11. Subject lit from 4:00 Position

  12. Subject lit from 5:00 Position

  13. Subject lit from 6:00 Position

  14. Diffused Lighting

  15. See textbook example • Catch lights to show proper placement • Broadlighting: when the key light shines of the side of the face closest to the camera • Short lighting: when the key light is on the side of the face opposite the camera; the camera is on the fill or shadow side

  16. Short lighting • Side of face toward camera is shadow

  17. Broad lighting – side of face toward camera is lit

  18. Functions of Fill Light • Fills shadows created by key light • Does not create new shadow

  19. Adding Fill for Portrait Lighting

  20. Fill Light Without Fill With Fill

  21. Backlight Hard backlight Soft Backlight

  22. Background With Background Without Background

  23. Hard vs. Soft Key Light Hard Soft

  24. Relative Distance of Soft Light Source: Inverse Square Law Close Far

  25. Lighting Dark Skin with Large Sources of Light Pin Light Source Large Diffused Source

  26. One Light Setup Use available Light from existing window— Don’t shoot like this – why?

  27. One-Light Setup Available Light One-Light Setup

  28. One-Light Setup Light directly in front Short Side of Face

  29. Color Balance Color Temps Mixing Key light with correct white balance set correction

  30. Warming the Scene Normal Color Balance Tricking Camera to Produce Warmer Tones

  31. Using Backlight as Key

  32. Use Large sources for Specular Reflections

  33. Backlight as Key Creates Form, Depth, Dynamic Images

  34. Camera • Indoor, outdoor, automatic • Manual vs. automatic (of anything) • Size of chip • Camera to subject distance • Light to subject distance

  35. Lighting effects • Silhouette – back lit

  36. Lighting effects • Cameo: spot on subject, dark background

  37. Lighting effects • Limbo: softly lit (white) background (cyc)