Download
chapter 1 methods and concepts in biology n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 1 : Methods and Concepts in Biology PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 1 : Methods and Concepts in Biology

Chapter 1 : Methods and Concepts in Biology

277 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Chapter 1 : Methods and Concepts in Biology

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 1 : Methods and Concepts in Biology Using a Microscope How to use microscope

  2. Vocabulary Words for Chapter 1: • Metabolism • Homeostasis • Evolution • Species • Genes Reading Assignment: pg. 6-9, 1040-1041

  3. What is Biology? • Biology – “the study of life” • From the Greek: bios = life; logos = study of I. WHAT DO ALL LIVING CREATURES HAVE IN COMMON? ?WHAT IS LIFE? 7 FEATURES OF LIVING CREATURES

  4. Cells and Genetic Material • composed of cells or cell fragments • cells come from existing cells • contain DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules that have instructions for assembling new organisms (blueprints for life) • DNA instructions for new life

  5. 2. Reproduction • Transfer of hereditary information to the next generation • Production of offspring • Essential b/c no organism lives forever • Of course, individuals can have problems reproducing offspring and still be considered living…

  6. A Great Example of the Power of Genetics….

  7. 3. Metabolism • Energy transfer within cells • Requires a constant consumption of energy (chemical, solar) • “sum of all chemical reactions carried out in organisms” • breaking down a complex molecule to produce energy

  8. 4. Mutation of Inheritable Traits • Mutation – any random change in the genetic material (DNA) • Organisms adapts to their environment by evolving (changing over time) • Organisms evolve over successive generations to survive changing environments

  9. 5. Sense and Respond to Environment • Homeostasis - maintaining constant internal environment in spite of external changes • Ex. Body temperature, glucose regulation and hunger, circadian (sleep) rhythms

  10. 6. Growth and Development • increase in the size and/or number of cells. • maturation and differentiation of cells • Cells develop unique functions – brain cell, kidney cell, bone cell, liver cell, skin cell…

  11. 7. Interdependence • depending on other organisms and environment as a source of energy or materials • Dependence of food, shelter, energy, oxygen

  12. GSMC MRI • To help you guys remember these 7 features • Good Samaritan Medical Center • MRI – a scan you might get at a hospital

  13. II. Levels of Organization Simplest • Subatomic particle – N, P, E • Atom • Compound • Organelle • Cell – smallest living unit • Tissue • Organ • Organ System • Multicellular Organism • Population- group of individuals from same species • Community – groups of different populations • Ecosystem • Biosphere – includes all living things on earth Most complex

  14. III Branches of Biology • Anatomy (internal structure) • Cytology (cells) • Histology (tissues) • Biochemistry (biological reactions) • Physiology (internal function) • Genetics (heredity) • Embryology (development) • Biotechnology (genetic engineering) • Parasitology (parasites) • Taxonomy (classification) • Ethology (behavior) • Immunology (immunity) • Ecology (environment) • Pathology (disease) • And so many more!!!!!!

  15. IV. The Scientific Method (short version) • A system for collecting and evaluating information about the natural world • In the simplest form, it has what steps? • Question • Hypothesis • Experiment “Fair Test” • Data Collection and Evaluation • Conclusion

  16. The Scientific Method (short version) • Descriptive Approach • How many, how long, how fast, what color….etc… • No hypothesis • Has a concluding statement • Experimental Approach • Question: What will happen to organism X if we change condition Y? • A hypothesis is needed • Needs an experiment and data collection • Conclusion with more questions to follow • i.e. CONSUMER REPORTS

  17. V. Biology as a Science (students have this handout) I. Human History A. Early humans or close ancestors (2-300,000 ybp) - Homo sapiens var. Neanderthalensis They disappear 35,000 ybp • Replaced by Homo sapiens var. sapiens They begin (100,000 ybp) and replace Neanderthals 1. Interbred w/ neanderthals 2. caused their extinction C. 10,000 to present (Advanced Civilizations) • Major Change is human behavior • Agriculture and Domestication – (role of women)

  18. II. Science is a form of curiosity • Observations lead to experimentation and ultimately to understanding • The first type of experiment: Trial and Error • Little planning for the future b/c of daily stresses • Man’s initial interests were geared towards taming his environment 1. First experiments: health, weapons, clothing, housing… 2. Kaopectate, Raspberry Leaves, Aspirin… C. After survival needs are met, experiments can be done in other areas to “make life better.” - math, astronomy, writing, art, music…

  19. VI. The Scientists A.Early Scientists • Names – shaman, witch doctors - They were both doctors and ministers • “There is no knowledge that is not POWER” • The spirit world and the physical world were closely associated: Magic, herbs, spirits, religion, superstition…

  20. B. Modern Scientists = 1640 A.D. Galileo 1. “All knowledge is in vain without the confirmation of experimentation” 2. NOT white-coated madmen 3. 90% of all scientists are alive today 4. Use of the scientific method (the next topic)

  21. SHORT HAND SYMBOLS • ∆ - change • ≈ - approximate • w/ - with • w/o – without • @ - at • b/c – because • mybp – million years before present • bybp – billion years before present • - therefore

  22. MORE PREFIXES • lac – milk (lactose, lactation) • hyper – above (hyperglycemic, hyperactive) • iso – same (isometric, isotonic) • hypo – below (hypothyroid, hypoallergenic) • a – not, without (asymmetric, atrophy) • geo – land (geography,biogeochemical) • auto – self (automobile, autobiography) • graph – write (telegraph, autograph) • troph – food (trophic level, heterotrophic)

  23. Microscope Quiz Topics • Microscope Parts and their function • Skills Test • Magnification • High and Low Power Calculation • Microscope Maintenance (how to care for it) • Microscope Calculations • Find field of view diameter (use formula) • Determine size of object

  24. Chapter 1 Test Topics • Prefixes, suffixes, and roots (from notes and homework • Vocabulary (1-5)& Text Pages (6-9) • All Notes • Branches of Biology • Levels of Organization (13) • History of Humans and Scientists • Safety Symbols (from binder) • Scientific Method (short version) • 7 Features of Living Creatures (GSMC MRI) • Neanderthal Video • Worksheets (Analyzing Science Words w/ added prefixes, Neanderthal Video questions, Branches of Bio) • NO MICROSCOPE STUFF and NO GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE STUFF INCLUDED ON THIS TEST

  25. Monty Python-witch

  26. Bonus pts. Collect Micro Lab Newspaper Quiz 9/8 Thursday Test 9/12 Monday Discussion C.P. option Contract due by 9/9 Important Dates CP 1 9/30 CP 2 10/21 Bonus 1 9/23 Bonus 2 10/14 Summary of 2 articles due 11/4