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Chapter 1 “Biology and You”

Chapter 1 “Biology and You”

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Chapter 1 “Biology and You”

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  1. Chapter 1“Biology and You” Section 1 Themes of Biology

  2. I. What is Biology? Bio = _______ - ology = ________

  3. Freancesco redi I. What is Biology? Bio = _______ - ology = ________ Life Study of “Spontaneous Generation” and the story of Francesco Redi “Life comes from Life”

  4. Properties of Life • Cellular Organizition • Reproduction • Metabolism • Homeostasis • Heredity • Responsiveness • Growth and Development

  5. 1. Cellular Organization • All living things are made of cells (i.e. cell theory) • Organisms can be: • Single-celled • Multi-celled

  6. Biological Hierarchy Biological hierarchy (rank / order) * Put in order from smallest to largest: • Organ, Cell, Molecule, Tissue, • Organism, Atom, and Organelle

  7. Biological Hierarchy Atom Molecule Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organism

  8. 2. Reproduction • A All living things can reproduce either: • Sexually • Asexually bility of organisms to make more of their own kind (offspring)

  9. 3. Metabolism All the chemical reactions in an organism Breaking down molecules to release their energy or raw materials Getting Energy Getting rid of waste Building proteins and other organic molecules for use by the organism Inhaling Oxygen and exhaling CO2 Matching a. Ingestion b. Digestion c. Respiration d. Excretion e. Synthesis

  10. 3. Metabolism All the chemical reactions in an organism Breaking down molecules to release their energy or raw materials Getting Energy Getting rid of waste Building proteins and other organic molecules for use by the organism Inhaling Oxygen and exhaling CO2 Matching a. Ingestion b. Digestion c. Respiration d. Excretion e. Synthesis

  11. Outhouse

  12. NOT AN EXCLUSIVE OR COMPLETE LIST! • Plants obtaining energy from the sun (_______________) • Animals obtaining energy from consuming plants and/or other animals (ingestion)

  13. Another Example: • Chemotrophs: (The orange stuff0 Organisms that use chemical sources (rather than sunlight) to obtain energy. The ones in the photo live at 50-60o C.

  14. 4. Homeostasis ●Maintaining a stable internal environment ●Respond to external environment and adjust Examples: • Body temperature • Blood sugar

  15. 5. Heredity • Passing traits from parents to offspring • Passed through genes • Mutations are changes in a gene’s DNA

  16. Video Clip Bird Brains - Clues to the origins of human language are turning up in the brains of birds. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/sciencenow/0304/01.html

  17. 6. Responsiveness a. Stimulus: A change in the environment b. Response: What an organism does to adjust and adapt to that change. “Fight or Flight” Reflex Pearls in Oysters

  18. 7. Growth and Development • Definite Size and Shape • Definite Lifespan Galapagos Land Tortoise Lifespan: 193 years The world's oldest known living tree - its root system has been growing for 9,550 years. (Sweden)

  19. Cameleon - Mayfly - Ameoba Labord's Chameleon (Madagascar) has a post-hatching life span of 4 to 5 months. One species of American Mayfly has an adult lifespan less than five minutes Ameoba

  20. “One of these things is not like the other”

  21. 7 Themes of Biology • Cellular Structure and Function • Reproduction • Metabolism • Homeostasis • Heredity • Evolution • Interdependence

  22. Evolution • A change in inherited traits over time • Mechanisms (how it works): • Mutations are original source of new traits (genes) • Organisms with “beneficial” genes are more likely to survive and reproduce (Natural Selection)

  23. Interdependence • How organisms interactand depend upon one another in a community • Ecology: studies interdependence of organisms and their interactions with their non-living environment

  24. Ecology studies life “beyond” the organism: • populations ~ many individuals of one species • communities ~ all organisms in an area • ecosystems ~ all organisms in an area and their environment