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Chapter 1: Biology Exploring Life

Chapter 1: Biology Exploring Life

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Chapter 1: Biology Exploring Life

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  1. Chapter 1: Biology Exploring Life

  2. Biology Defined • Biology – study of living organisms • Consider the diversity of characteristics among the many living organisms you know. • Yet all share underlying properties • Our focus for the semester

  3. Levels of Organization (1.2) • In studying nature patterns arise • Biologists organize nature from the simplest level to the most inclusive level • page 3

  4. Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism Organ System* Organ* Tissue* Cell Organelle** Molecule Atom *apply to multi-celled organisms only ** eukaryotes only

  5. Levels of Organization Atom • Smallest particle of an element that has the properties of the element

  6. Levels of Organization • Molecule • Group of atoms joined by chemical bonds

  7. Levels of Organization • Organelle • Membrane bound structure within a eukaryotic cell that performs a specific function Mitochondria – metabolizes glucose to make energy for eukaryotic cells

  8. Levels of Organization Cell – smallest unit that can live and reproduce on its own Eukaryotic cell • Has a nucleus • Larger, more complex Prokaryotic cells - No nucleus, smaller

  9. Levels of Organization • Tissue • Organized group of cells and substances that interact to serve a function • Multi-celled organism only Muscle Tissue

  10. Levels of Organization • Organ • 2 or more tissues working together to serve a function • Multi-celled organism only Heart – pumps blood to lungs and body

  11. Levels of Organization • Organ System • Group of organs working together to perform a function • Multi-celled organism only Cardiovascular System

  12. Levels of Organization • Organism • An individual living thing Multi-celled Organism Blue shark Single-celled Organisms bacteria

  13. Levels of Organization • Population • All organisms of the same species inhabiting a given area Population of cormorants Population of sunflowers

  14. Levels of Organization • Community • All populations of living organisms inhabiting a given area • Ecosystem • All the living organisms in a given area and their physical environment

  15. Identify the: Ecosytem Community Population(s) Red Fish

  16. Levels of Organization • Biosphere • All regions of the Earth that support life • most inclusive and complex level

  17. Biosphere Ecosystem Community Population Organism Organ System* Organ* Tissue* Cell Organelle** Molecule Atom *apply to multi-celled organisms only ** eukaryotes only

  18. Organisms and the Ecosystem (1.4) • Organisms interact with the other organisms and the nonliving in the environment • Each organism plays a role in the ecosystem • Producer • Consumer • Decomposer

  19. Producers • Producersprovide food for an ecosystem • Plants use the sun’s energy, CO2 and H2O to make sugars and oxygen in a process called photosynthesis • Also interact with the soil - absorbing nutrients and breaking up particles

  20. Producers • Producers are also known as autotrophs • Producers are all capable of photosyntheis and include: • Plants • photosynthetic bacteria and protists

  21. Consumers • Consumers obtain their food by eating plants or other animals • All take in O2 and release CO2 • Their wastes return substances into the environment • Consumers are also known as heterotrophs • Animals and others are consumers

  22. Decomposers • Decomposersbreak down wastes and remains of other organisms to simpler substances that plants can use • Decomposers recycle nutrients. • Decomposers are heterotrophs • Examples: Fungus, small animals, and some bacteria are decomposers.

  23. Sun Air Inflow of light energy Loss of heat energy O2 CO2 O2 CO2 Chemical energy Cycling of chemical nutrients Consumers Producers Decomposers H2O Soil Ecosystem

  24. Flow of Energy and Nutrients • In every ecosystem there is a: • Recycling of nutrients • Plants  consumers  decomposers  plants …. • One way flow of energy • From sun  producers  consumers  decomposers heat heatheat • As energy is transferred between living organisms some of the energy is always “lost” to the environment in the form of heat • See page 5

  25. Cells (1.3) • The cell is the smallest structure that exhibits all of the properties associated with life Two types of cells • Prokaryotic cells • Eukaryotic cells

  26. Cells

  27. Cells as Systems • System – combination of simpler components that form a more complex organization • Cells are a system with emergent properties • properties that emerge as a result of the arrangement and organization of the components

  28. Properties Common to all Living Organisms (1.1 , 1.3) • All living organisms share a number of characteristics. • We will consider 7 of these. • First property slightly modified from text. • Order the properties are presented in lecture differs from that in the text.

  29. All living organisms: 1). are made up of one or more cells. • All cells are made of the same substances arranged in the same basic ways. • Cells structure is an example of the high level of order observed in living organisms

  30. All living organisms: 2) Grow and develop as directed by their DNA • Molecular code in DNA gives directions for building proteins • The proteins an organism makes determines the characteristics of the organism

  31. All living organisms: Grow and develop as directed by their DNA,continued….. • Flow of information in the cell is from • DNA  RNA  Protein • An organism’s DNA determines which RNAs are made and thus which proteins are made at any given time

  32. All living organisms 3). Reproduce their own kind • Living organisms pass their DNA on to their offspring

  33. Only living organisms: 4). Take in energy and transform it to perform life’s activities • Require an input of energy to grow, maintain themselves, and reproduce. • called metabolism.

  34. All living organisms: 5) Regulate their internal environment in an effort to maintain homeostasis. • Homeostasis – ability to maintain the internal environment within ranges tolerable for life • Insulin and blood sugar example

  35. All living organisms 6).Respond to their environment • Living organisms sense and make controlled responses to changes in the environment. • Temperature and sweating example

  36. All living organisms 7). Have the capacity to evolve over time • Organisms with characteristics that improve their odds of survival or reproduction pass their DNA on more often  results in evolution

  37. All living organisms: • Made up of one or more cells (order) • Grow and develop based on instructions in DNA • Reproduce their own kind • Engage in metabolism – energy processing • Regulate their internal environment • Respond to the environment • Have the capacity to evolve.

  38. Classifying the Diversity (1.6) • Each living organism can classified by a two part name: Genus species • Taxonomy – field in biology that identifies and classifies organisms Examples: • Homo sapiens (humans) • Lamna nasus (porbeagle shark)

  39. Classification Scheme Domain – most inclusive (3) Kingdom – related phlya (6 ?) Phylum – related classes Class – related orders Order – related families Family – related genera Genusspecies - defines the organism (also called species)

  40. Classification of a Mako Shark Domain - Eukarya Kingdom – Animalia Phylum – Chordates (spinal cord) Class – Chondrichthyes(cartilaginous fish) Order – Lamniformes (5 gill slits….) Family – Lamnidae Genus – Isurus Species – oxyrinchusFYI slide – not for test

  41. H. sapiens & Isurus oxyrinchus !

  42. Classifying the Diversity Classify organisms into one of 3 Domains: • Bacteria • Archae(bacteria) • Eukarya • Protists • Fungus • Plants • Animals

  43. Protista Plants Fungi Animals Eukaryotes Archaebacteria Eubacteria Prokaryotes Origin of life Domains? Kingdoms? Cell Types?

  44. Domain (Kingdom) Bacteria Cell type: prokaryote • Lack a nucleus and organelles Cell Size: small • ~1-10 microns Single celled organisms Ubiquitous

  45. Domain (Kingdom) Archae Cell type: prokaryote Cell Size: small Single celled Many are extremophiles - live in extreme environments

  46. Domain - Eukarya • All organisms with eukaryotic cells are placed in the domain Eukarya • Eukaryotic cells have: 1. 2. • Within this domain are 4 major Kingdoms.

  47. Kingdom - Protista Cell type: Eukaryote • More complex cell with a nucleus and organelles • Cells are larger than bacterial cells Primarily single celled, some multi-celled Autotroph or heterotroph Examples: Euglena, paramecium, ameoba

  48. Kingdom - Fungi Cell type: Eukaryote Single or multicelled Heterotrophs decomposers with external stomachs Examples: yeast, mushrooms, molds

  49. Kingdom - Plantae Cell type: Eukaryotic cells with cell walls Multicelled organisms Producers • Photosynthetic Examples:

  50. Kingdom - Animalia Cell type: eukaryote • (no cell walls) Multicelled organisms Consumer/heterotroph Most are mobile at some time in life