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Labor and Delivery

Labor and Delivery

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Labor and Delivery

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  1. Labor and Delivery Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  2. Definition of LABOR Labor is the process by which the products of conception (the viable fetus, placenta and membranes) are expelled from the uterus via the vagina into the external environment. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  3. Normal Labor • Occurs at term (neither premature nor post-mature). • Has a spontaneous onset (not induced). • Is completed after 4 hours, and before 24 hours from the time of its onset (neither precipitate nor prolonged). • Is achieved without artificial aids (such as forceps). • Involves no complications (such as excessive hemorrhage). • Has the (single) fetus presenting by the vertex (top of the head), with the occipit in the anterior part of the pelvis. • Involves spontaneous delivery of the placenta. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  4. Primary power contraction and Retraction of the uterine muscles Secondary power Voluntary muscular efforts of the mother i.e. contraction of the abdominal muscle & the diaphragm during the ‘pushing’ or ‘bearing-down’ phase). The Factors Affecting Labor:1- The powers: Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  5. 2- The passages:the bony pelvis, cervix, vagina and pelvic floor (muscles). 3- The passengers: mainly the fetus (specifically the fetal head), plus the placenta, membranes and liquor. 4- Personality & psychological Status : age, parity. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  6. Causes of uterine contractions • Hypoxia of the contracted myometrium • Compression of nerve ganglia in the cervix • and lower uterus. • Stretching of the cervix during dilatation. • Stretching of the perineum. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  7. Phases of uterine contraction a) Increment b) Acme c) Decrement Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  8. Retraction Retraction is shortening that persists after a contraction. The muscle fibers do not relax completely at the end of a contraction, but retain some of the shortening and thickening. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  9. Secondary powers ‘bearing down’ Pic ( 114 ) Progress of uterine contraction Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  10. The Secondary powers (the abdominal muscles and diaphragm) are used in the second stage of labor; They are used during ‘bearing down’ or ‘pushing;’ they are the mother’s voluntary expulsive efforts. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  11. Pelvic inlet 11 cm anteroposteriorly 13.5 cm laterally (side to side) Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  12. Pelvic Cavity : The pelvic cavity (between the inlet and the outlet) is circular in shape and curves forwards. Its average measurement is 12 cm in diameter. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  13. Pelvic outlet : The pelvic (obstetric) outlet is bordered by the two ischial tuberosities (spines Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  14. Soft Tissues The cervix and vagina when labor begins, uterine contractions affect the cervix in two ways. Effacement and dilatation Normally, a primiparous woman will experience effacement before dilation. For a multiparous woman, both processes usually occur at the same time. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  15. Cervical dilation and effacement Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  16. The fetal skull: • Made of 5 main bones • Two frontal bones • Two parietal bones • One occipital bone Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  17. Sutures: • The lines of junction between the bones are called sutures. The main ones are: • Frontal-between the two frontal bones • Coronal-between the frontal and parietal bones • Sagittal-between the two parietal bones • Lambdoidal-between the parietal bones and the occipital. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  18. The anterior (called the bregma) is the large diamond-shaped (2.5*1.25cm) formed by the junction of the parietal and frontal bones The posterior fontanelle is the smaller, triangular-shaped, junction of the parietal and occipital bones. Fontanelle Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  19. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  20. Moulding (Slight overlapping, caused gradually by the pressure of the birth canal Attitude : (Relation ship of the fetus body parts to each other. Flexion, or extension). LieRelationship of the long axis of the fetus to long axis of the mother. (longitudinal – transverse or oblique ) Position: Relationship between back of the fetus and the anterior abdominal wall of the mother. Presentation : part of the fetus lying in the pelvic prim Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  21. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  22. Causes of the onset of labor • 1- Hormone level changes are probably due to placental aging • Progesterone levels fall • Oestrogen and prostaglandin levels-rise • 2- Fetal pressure Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  23. Preliminary signs of labor : • Lightening • Greater pressure below • False Labor • Braxton-hicks contractions, • Formation of fore water Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  24. Late signs of labour Show Contraction Rupture of membrane Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  25. THE STAGES OF LABOR • The first stage is the stage of dilatation, starts from the onset of regular contractions until the cervix is fully dilated Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  26. 2)The second stage:is the stage of expulsion, starts fromcomplete cervical dilatation until the expulsion of the fetus. Pic (111 ) Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  27. 3) The third stage:is the stage of separation, following delivery of the fetus until the complete expulsion of the placenta. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  28. 4) Fourth Stage: The hour or two following the completion of Labor, Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  29. The first stage The average duration of the first stage of labor is 10-12 hours in a primi-gravida, and about 4-6 hours in a multipara. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  30. At the end of the first stage: * The cervix is fully dilated * The uterus, cervix and vagina form one continuous canal * The membranes rupture (it this has not already happened) * There will be strong uterine contractions usually every 2 to 3 minutes, lasting between 50 and 60 seconds each * The fetal head will have descended into the pelvis. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  31. Duration of Different Stages of labor Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  32. Phases • Latent phase: • The cervical dilation is less than 3 cm. • The uterine contractions are t infrequent, uncomfortable, and irregular, but generate force to cause slow dilation and some effacement of the cervix • A prolonged latent phase is greater than 20 hours in the primigravida, and greater than 14 hours in the multipara. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  33. Active phase: The cervix dilates from 3-10 cm. progressive cervical dilation. A prolonged active phase is see in the primigravida who dilates at less than 1.2 cm/hr, and in the multigravida who dilates at less than 1.5 cm/hr. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  34. Signs and Symptoms of 2nd stage of labor • Strong uterine cont, urge to bear down. • Gaping of anus & vulva. • Plugging of perineum • Flashing of the face • full dilatation, complete effacement. • Appearance of presenting part from the vulva. • Spontaneous rupture of membranes. • Changing in woman cry. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  35. THE MECHANISM OF LABOR The Mechanism of labor is a series of passive adaptive movements of the fetal head in order to accommodate it self to pass through the irregular birth canal . Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  36. 1) Engagement : Engagement Station 0 Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  37. THE THIRD STAGE OF LABOR Following delivery of the baby, the uterus contracts to a twenty week size, causing the detachment of the placenta and expelling the upper vagina. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  38. Signs of placental separation 1-The uterus becomes smaller, harder, higher, more globular and more mobile. 2-Suprapubic bulge appears due to presence of the placenta in the lower uterine segment. 3- The passage of gush of blood per vagina. 4- The umbilical cord outside the vulva increases in length. 5- Loss of pulsation in the cord when pressure is exerted on the funds. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  39. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  40. A healthy placenta after delivery. (A). Notice the shiny surface of the fetal side. The umbilical cord is inserted in the center of the fetal surface. (B). The maternal side is rough and divided into segments (cotyledons). Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  41. Pic ( 129 ) Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  42. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  43. MANAGEMENT OF LABOR The expertise to management of normal labor begins well before the onset of labor, enabling proper preparation of the mother for the birth. This primarily involves education about what happens at each stage and in addition, a variety of methods which enable the mother to control pain to some degree and to regulate expulsive efforts during the second stage. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  44. In the Egypt today most of women are confined to hospital because obstetric emergencies like fetal hypoxia and postpartum haemorrhage can spontaneously occur in apparently normal deliveries and the facilities are readily at hand, a long with deal with these here. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  45. No labor is normal until the fourth stage is safely concluded and since danger can arise at anytime to the mother and the fetus. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  46. 1- complete history taking: Personal, gynecological &obstetrics, medical &surgical etc........ 2- Full examination: Temperature, pulse, BP, respiratory rate, state of hydration are all stated. Check urine for ketones, protein and glucose. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  47. 3- Abdominal/obstetric examination: Inspection, palpation, auscultation to determine fetal lie, position and the state of the presenting part. It will also show the frequency and strength of uterine contractions. The fetal heart rate is checked and any abnormalities of the rate and rhythm is noted. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  48. 4- Vaginal examination: This should be performed after cleansing the vulva and introitus and using an aseptic technique. It will show: Degree of dilatation of the cervix, consistency and effacement. Whether the membranes are intact or ruptured. The nature and position of the presenting part and fetal head. Assessment of the bony pelvis, particularly the pelvic outlet. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  49. 5- Examination of the vulva: • Inspect for gaping of introitus. • Observe colour and odour of liquor amnii, and presence of meconium or blood. Offensive odour indicates infection. • Check for oedema of the vulva. If present, it indicates pre-eclampsia. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed

  50. During labor the woman should always be informed about the dilatation of the cervix, and the condition of her baby, if the fetal hear rates monitored, you must explain the purpose of the fetal heart rate monitor to the mother too. The reason for any intervention should also be discussed with the mother and her partner fully. Dr/ Hanan Elsayed