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The White Paper on Arts and Culture

The White Paper on Arts and Culture

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The White Paper on Arts and Culture

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  1. The White Paper on Arts and Culture ACTING DIRECTOR-GENERAL: ARTS AND CULTURE DATE: 17 March 2015

  2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE • Background • Scope • Objectives • Methodology • Implementation Process and Timetable

  3. 1 BACKGROUND ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WHITE PAPER The purpose of the White Paper is to pronounce clearly government’s policy regarding arts, culture and heritage in the Republic of South Africa. This White Paper sets out government’s vision for the ACH sector and details the impact it would like to achieve by investing in particular outcomes and strategic objectives. It provides clear policy directives for promoting the arts, culture and heritage sector. The primary legislative mandate of the Department of Arts and Culture derives from the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, which states that, "Everyone has the right to freedom of expression which includes: – freedom of press and other media; freedom to receive or impact information or ideas; freedom of artistic creativity ;and academic freedom and freedom of scientific research."

  4. BACKGROUND Cont… As the overarching policy framework of the DAC, the White Paper on Arts and Culture ought to position the department and its implementing entities to fulfil its Constitutional mandate as public custodian of the arts, culture and heritage sector. Accordingly, the White Paper, as a guiding and unifying principle for DAC policies and programmes, should frame all interventions of the department and its entities in fulfilment of its mission to: - • “develop and promote arts and culture in South Africa and mainstream its role in social development. • develop and promote the official languages of South Africa and enhance the linguistic diversity of the country.

  5. BACKGROUND Cont… c) improve economic and other development opportunities for South African arts and culture nationally and globally through mutually beneficial partnerships, thereby ensuring the sustainability of the sector. d) develop and monitor the implementation of policy, legislation and strategic direction for the identification, conservation and promotion of cultural heritage. e) guide, sustain and develop the archival, heraldic and information resources of the nation to empower citizens through full and open access to these resources.”

  6. BACKGROUND Cont… The first White Paper on Arts, Culture and Heritage was released in 1996. The White Paper of 1996, arising out of a deep and far-reaching engagement with practitioners, educators, academics and administrators, was the first official policy on arts and culture since the establishment of the Ministry in 1994. It embodied the hopes and aspirations of the arts, culture and heritage sector in the immediate post-apartheid context by focusing broadly on three important challenges: • to effect fundamental transformation in accordance with the democratic values enshrined in the new Constitution; • to give substance to the rights of citizens to access, participate in and enjoy the arts and to preserve their heritage; and • to facilitate optimum conditions in which these rights may be enjoyed and practiced.

  7. BACKGROUND Cont… This policy was premised on the belief that while arts, culture and heritage are valued in and of themselves, they have an important role to play in development, nation-building and sustaining democracy, and in enabling individuals to realise their full potential as responsible and creative citizens. The policy was wide-ranging, aimed at redressing the wrongs of the past, correcting historical imbalances, and broadening the range and scope of publicly funded heritage institutions. Its overarching ethos was governed by the need to address the country’s troubled history by using arts, culture and heritage to promote national reconciliation and healing. This was to be attained through, inter alia: • transparent and catalytic mechanisms for distributing public funds; • transformation of all arts and culture institutions and structures; • redistribution, redress and access; • human resource development: practitioners, administrators and educators; • integration of arts and culture into all aspects of socio-economic development.

  8. BACKGROUND Cont… • Consistent with the mandate and mission of the DAC, then, these policy interventions ought to have complied with the transformation imperatives of government articulated in Outcome 14 as social cohesion and nation-building. Thus, the DAC’s policies – in particular the White Paper – ought to be guided by these high-level priorities, which require all institutional entities, structures and programmes to measure their relevance by the extent to which they align with the department’s Constitutional mandate and mission and make significant progress in dealing with challenges of the day. • Much has changed in the period since the adoption of the White Paper in 1996, however. Despite some tangible and noteworthy achievements in overcoming the deep divisions wrought by apartheid and increasing the participation of previously disadvantaged groups in the arts, culture and heritage value chain, a combination of legacy, structural and economic issues have revealed policy shortcomings which now present potentially serious obstacles to progress.

  9. BACKGROUND Cont… • This effectively meant that the White Paper of 1996 was no longer a true reflection of the long-range objectives of the National Development Plan (NDP) and the synergy required between policy and key strategic directions of the Department. Against this background, the DAC, led by former Minister of Arts and Culture, Paul Mashatile, appointed a Ministerial Task Team to undertake a process of revising the White Paper. The team was charged with identifying factors which impact negatively on the ACH’s performance and making recommendations as to how these factors could be addressed.

  10. BACKGROUND Cont… In line with the Minister's instructions, the team released a draft White Paper on Arts and Culture in June 2013 for public comment. Recognising these shortcomings, the process of revising the White Paper – following various consultative processes and meetings with stakeholders around a vision for the department – sought to bring a sense of proportion to the developmental role of the DAC in advancing its goal of social cohesion. Among other things, the Revised White Paper noted the following weaknesses inherent in the White Paper of 1996: • Overlaps and duplications across a proliferation of institutions and agencies involved in implementing the DAC’s mandate, and the need to eradicate areas of duplication and build synergies where appropriate.

  11. BACKGROUND Cont… • Overlaps and duplications across a proliferation of institutions and agencies involved in implementing the DAC’s mandate, and the need to eradicate areas of duplication and build synergies where appropriate. • Changes in the political and socio-economic context since 1996 that have necessitated preponderant changes in government’s priorities towards greater interventions in the economy. • The enactment of a wide range of legislation and introduction of policies and programmes as part of a broader agenda to radically transform the economy which impact on, and inform the role and work of cultural and creative industries. More recently, the New Growth path and National Development Plan have placed the DAC, as both a subject and object of change, at the centre of bold interventions towards a wider strategy of social cohesion, nation formation and radical economic transformation.

  12. BACKGROUND Cont… • Given the policy lag of the White Paper of 1996, policy incoherence threatens to undermine economic interventions towards facilitating socio-economic development that is truly reflective of a transformed, democratic country. • The separation of Science and Technology from Arts and Culture, in 2004, was an added variable that necessitated a revision of the White paper. In light of these shortcomings, the Revised White Paper focussed essentially on policies aimed at harnessing the Cultural and Creative Industries to the goal of economic growth and development as a precondition for social cohesion and nation-building.

  13. BACKGROUND Cont… Accordingly, the Revised Draft attempted to encapsulate Government’s: * Strategic re-positioning of the role of the DAC in delivering ACH to all – > within the context and ambit of a developmental state; and > in partnership with other role-players involved in and with the Cultural and Creative Industries. * Commitment to transforming the approach, institutional structures and processes for equitably delivery of ACH.

  14. BACKGROUND Cont… The document identified the following policy objectives: • Clarify and agree on the roles and mandates of DAC in relation to its implementing agencies and councils; civil society, other non-governmental Cultural and Creative Industries institutions; and each sphere of government; • Determine the inter-governmental and multi-sectoral mechanisms and processes that would support integrated and collaborative implementation while respecting the constitutional role of each sphere of government; and the independence of the various sectors of society;

  15. BACKGROUND Cont… • Firmly and unambiguously make definitive policy statements that recognise, support and facilitate the role and contribution of the Cultural and Creative Industries to building social cohesion, national unity and pride; and as a key economic growth sector as listed in the country’s New Growth Path (NGP) and Industrial Action Policy Programme 2 (IPAP 2); • Increase sustainable provision of financial resources directed at the implementation of visible outcomes-based and results oriented programmes and projects that can be monitored and evaluated for impact, reach and depth across the entire spectrum of South African society in general, and previously disadvantaged communities and individuals in particular;

  16. BACKGROUND Cont… • up-skill; increase the professional and technical human resource capacity and abilities in direct Cultural and Creative Industries fields; develop the Cultural and Creative Industries capacity and skills to provide indispensable support functions; and propagate arts, culture and heritage as a viable, sustainable long-term career and business choice; • re-introduce and support Cultural and Creative Industries studies into the curriculum of schools at primary and secondary levels; • expand the tertiary levels of Cultural and Creative Industries study opportunities to include the direct and indirect or downstream career skills and knowledge;

  17. BACKGROUND Cont… • clarify, standardise and, if necessary, develop definitions and meanings of Cultural and Creative Industries terminology; and • transform the demographic, ownership, management and operational profile of the Cultural and Creative Industries operating at all levels of the ACH value chain of activities.

  18. BACKGROUND Cont… However, a number of weaknesses (discussed below) in the approach of the revised draft to the vision, mission and objectives of the DAC appear to have, at least notionally, focused on the socio-economic goals set out in the NDP and elaborated by the African National Congress (ANC) at its National Conference in 2012 as a programme of “radical economic transformation”. This proposal briefly reflects on those weaknesses against the policy goals and objectives of the DAC as a basis for crystallising ideas for most effectively reviewing the White Paper. The intended outcome is a more cohesive document that harmonises with the nuances and complexities of transformation in the arts, culture and heritage sector.

  19. BACKGROUND Cont… 1.2 Structure of this Report • This report describes the background to and rationale for a review of the White Paper on Arts and Culture, the objectives/aims of the review, the strategic approach of the review, the review methodology, and the implementation process and timeline. The report is structured as follows: > Objectives and strategic approach to the review Following the introduction, this part of the report contains the scope and objectives of the review. This is followed by an outline of the strategic approach and methodology to be deployed for the review. > Process and implementation plan This section highlights the consultative and legislative process, inclusive of implementation timelines, pursuant to its final adoption by Parliament.

  20. 2 WEAKNESSES INHERENT IN THE DRAFT REVISED WHITE PAPER In June 2013, the DAC invited public comment until 25 July 2013. However, some stakeholders expressed misgivings about the process, timeline and extent to which the Draft White Paper represented a strategically coherent policy. Despite general agreement on the need to assess which strategies have been effective and what lessons may be learnt from those initiatives that have flourished and those that have floundered, as well as the need to streamline institutional arrangements in order to strengthen the sector, the general framing of the Draft White Paper and consultations with stakeholders have been questioned. In reality, the draft document reveals several underlying weaknesses: These include: • Failure to identify a unifying principle that aligns arts, culture and heritage policy with current imperatives and priorities of the DAC, including social cohesion and socio-economic development. 

  21. Weaknesses Cont….. • Preponderance of job creation over sustainable livelihoods in the arts, culture and heritage sector. • Lack of clarity on the role of policy and instruments in the promotion of sustainable economic activities in a context of jobless growth and economic decline. • Lack of clarity on the relationship between value creation, value capture and value circulation as a critical weakness in the White Paper and necessary model for sustainable development. • Failure to identify instruments for market creation as a shortcoming and weakness in the White Paper.

  22. Weaknesses Cont….. • Lack of policy coherence on effective instruments towards the creation of an enabling environment for artists to develop their crafts. • In attempting to realign policy with government’s developmental mandate, the draft does not focus on key issues of strengthening and/or reimagining innovative components or functions that would make this possible. • Lack of institutional clarity on the alignment of DAC policy with programme interventions and the goal of social cohesion.

  23. Weaknesses End. • Incoherence in the structure and presentation of the Draft revision. • Failure to deliver a more broadly transformative vision for the sector.

  24. 3 SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF THE REVIEW 3.1 NDP goals – Outcome 14 The scope of this review derives from Chapter 25 of the NDP and Outcome 14, which set out several long-term goals to move towards greater levels of social cohesion. The identified priorities highlight important interventions that broadly define the underlying principles, scope and criteria of DAC activities, and therefore this review. These goals are summarised as follows: 3.1.1. Fostering constitutional values • The Constitution aims to transform South Africa into a more equitable, integrated and just society. It provides the basis for a new South African identity and enables South Africans to have a common bond, providing normative principles that ensure ease of life, lived side by side. Relatively comprehensive legislation exists; the problem is ineffective implementation and enforcement. Institutions created to foster non-sexism and non-racialism should be strengthened mainly through clarifying roles of each.

  25. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… 3.1.2. Equal opportunities, inclusion and redress • Equal opportunity is about reducing the impact of factors such as gender, ethnicity, and disability, place of birth, parental income, wealth and family background on people’s life chances. This would mean building people’s capabilities through access to quality education, health care and basic services, as well as enabling access to employment, and transforming ownership patterns of the economy. Redress measures that seek to correct imbalances of the past should be strengthened.

  26. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… 3.1.3. Promoting social cohesion across society through increased interaction • Daily interactions on an equal basis build social cohesion and common understanding. At the moment, the country is divided by the services people use, with economic wealth gradually replacing race as the key driver of differentiation. Cultural activities and art can play a major role in facilitating the sharing of common spaces, fostering values and facilitating dialogue and healing. 3.1.4. Social compacts • Meaningful social contracts which could help propel South Africa onto a higher developmental trajectory as well as build a more cohesive and equitable society will be developed. The foundation of these partnerships must be buy-in by all stakeholders to a clearly articulated vision. The singular area that demands a social contract is the area of employment creation.

  27. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… 3.1.5. Management of implementation • The Minister and the Department of Arts and Culture will be responsible for coordinating the implementation of Outcome 14. The Department will also be responsible for reporting on progress against the indicators on the sub-outcomes below.

  28. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… • 3.1.5. Management of implementation The Minister and the Department of Arts and Culture will be responsible for coordinating the implementation of Outcome 14. The Department will also be responsible for reporting on progress against the indicators on the sub-outcomes below.

  29. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… Table 1: Outcome 14

  30. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… 3.2 Policy objectives of the DAC • DAC priority interventions specific to Outcome 14 are summarised as the following sub-outcomes: • “Promote the Bill of Responsibility, Constitutional values and national symbols amongst children in schools. • Use National Days as a platform for promoting Constitutional Values. • Build non-racialism through community dialogues and hosting of national summit on Action Plan to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance • Promote social cohesion in schools

  31. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… • Promote heritage and culture: Ensure government invests in the cultural and creative industries, particularly in film, music, arts and craft, books and publishing; honour and celebrate our collective heritage by promoting our diverse cultural identities; promote our new museums and monuments and preserve existing ones to depict and preserve the heritage of our people; promote a Liberation Heritage Route that honours the heroes and heroines of the struggle. • Transform the utilization of currently marginalised languages. • Use international events to promote South Africa as a diverse socially cohesive nation. • Crafting a social compact for a more democratic; equal and more prosperous society derived from the social cohesion summit.”

  32. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… Pursuant to these outcomes, DAC programme interventions include the following: • Mzansi Golden Economy flagship programme • Heritage promotion and preservation • DAC Schools programme • Library conditional grant • Cultural Diplomacy programme including Africa month and Africa Seasons • Language promotion programme • DAC Governance Review • National Days programme • Nation-building and social cohesion advocates programme • Coordination of the Moral Regeneration movement

  33. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… • NaCISAprogramme • Creative Arts Incubators and Community Arts Centresprogramme • Tax Incentives for the arts and culture sector review • Cultural events towards the promotion of black artists programme • Public Arts Bank and Venture Capital Fund • Heroes Acre • Liberation Heritage Route pilot programmes • Unite Mandela Schools programme. • Leveraging the Digital Divide programme. • Coordination of Social Cohesion programmes across departments

  34. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… 3.3 Objectives of the review • The emphasis of the White Paper review is thus placed on assessing the alignment of legislation with the policy orientation of national government and the impact on all programme interventions and outcomes, as well as analysing current institutional arrangements and whether existing structures and entities of the DAC are designed to achieve economies of scale and service delivery outcomes. • The assessment is intended to identify lessons learnt from current funding arrangements and business models, at both strategic and operational levels, including those related to the different roles of entities and stakeholders working within the ambit of the DAC; what works and what does not; and to provide overall recommendations on future policy.

  35. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… The objectives of the policy review are summarised thus: • To assess the efficiency and effectiveness of current institutions and structures of the DAC in meeting programme outputs and outcomes. • To examine policy shortcomings that have resulted from the implementation of programmes by assessing the impact of DAC interventions on programme outcomes. • To assess stakeholder perceptions, based on underlying comprehensions of programme activities against current policy. • To assess the alignment of policy provisions, institutions and structures with the goal of social cohesion and nation-building. • To compile an interim report, documenting the lessons learned and highlighting weaknesses, challenges and possible best practices. • To use the findings of the review, including consultations with stakeholders, to develop a revised White Paper on Arts and Culture.

  36. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… Thus, the overall objective of the review is to assess weaknesses inherent in the White Paper by evaluating the extent to which its provisions align with the priorities and programme interventions of the DAC. The review is intended, additionally, to identify lessons learnt from current funding arrangements at strategic and operational levels of the DAC implementing entities themselves. A final objective of the exercise is to provide overall recommendations on the future role of entities within the DAC and beneficiary organisations, and suggest priority policy interventions.

  37. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… 3.4 Project activities • In order to realise this task within the allotted timeframe, a senior researcher from the DAC has been assigned to the project. Phase 1 of the project plan was initiated in October, 2014, consisting of a preliminary review of the White Paper of 1996 and Revised Draft White Paper. The current phase (Phase 2) entails the development of a methodology and implementation plan. • In order to ensure a representative consultation process and correspondingly robust and innovative synthesis of the findings and emerging understandings of the White Paper, this report sets out a combination of methods and assessment tools.

  38. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… 3.4 Project activities • In order to realise this task within the allotted timeframe, a senior researcher from the DAC has been assigned to the project. Phase 1 of the project plan was initiated in October, 2014, consisting of a preliminary review of the White Paper of 1996 and Revised Draft White Paper. The current phase (Phase 2) entails the development of a methodology and implementation plan. • In order to ensure a representative consultation process and correspondingly robust and innovative synthesis of the findings and emerging understandings of the White Paper, this report sets out a combination of methods and assessment tools.

  39. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… In applying this perspective, we will place the main emphasis on the underlying principles, institutions, structures, business models and processes as main assessment criteria. Once this process has been completed, the preliminary findings will be catalogued, analysed and the conclusions presented to the Technical Committee of Directors General and Cabinet for adoption. In terms of the programme for this review, project interventions are developed and implemented by DAC entities. The ‘actions’ (inputs, implementation) of the DAC and its entities therefore consist largely in their framing as implementation agents of stakeholders in the arts, culture and heritage context. What structures and institutions are appropriate, and how this framing ought to occur on the balance of evidence arising from this review, is a key plank of the review objective and process. Thus, analyses of operational issues, systems, models and processes will largely focus on the nexus between the role of policy and the latter’s functional alignment with current goals and objectives of the DAC.

  40. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… 3.4.1 Core evaluation activities arising • Arising from these objectives, the core activities listed in the scope of work and related deliverables of the review are: • To develop an implementation plan, inclusive of a timeline, and available resources and expertise related to the project. • To review the White Paper against DAC goals and programme interventions and submit a draft report. • To use the findings of the review and feedback from consultations with stakeholders to develop a consolidated report.

  41. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… For the purpose of this report, it suffices to summarise the core methodological, data and information gathering activities thus: • Review documents and gather evidence, including types of responses to the Draft Revised White Paper, to assess weaknesses in the White Paper of 1996 and the Revised Draft against current goals and objectives. • Assess the effectiveness of institutional provisions, practices and their functionality against goals and objectives. • Note observable changes in practices from policy, the types of problems encountered in the execution of programmes, duplication of structures, etc.

  42. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… • Note coherence of the structure of the Revised Draft and whether the presentation of policy provisions makes practical sense. • Analyse and compile data in a written report. • Classify collected data from consultations with stakeholders based on their themes. Note variations and similarities among responses across participants and check whether the identified differences can address highlighted weaknesses in the White Paper, and document them. • Analyse responses across participants using a thematic approach and check against goals and objectives of the DAC. • Review project outputs and identify those that may support or oppose the results.

  43. SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES Cont… The results of the review will inform the final draft review report. The final report ought to develop business models of, and identify practical policy instruments that enable interventions towards better outputs and innovative and sustainable outcomes in the arts, culture and heritage sector.

  44. 4 METHODOLOGY 4.1 Overall approach • The broad methodological approach of this review will be qualitative, combining methods of discerning itemised weaknesses in the White Paper (drawn from a systematic review of programme-related data, entities, institutions and business models against DAC goals and objectives) with those derived from consultations with stakeholders. The specific approach is therefore thematic, extrapolating specific evidence from general data collected and stakeholder consultations for the purpose of reviewing what works and what does not and developing a revised White Paper.

  45. METHODOLOGY Cont… Under four thematic areas – the institutional and administrative effectiveness of policy; the relevance of policies to DAC operational interventions; the impact of the interventions on economic activities; and the weaknesses and challenges of the White Paper – the findings will be grouped and synthesised. The method employed in the synthesis and analysis of data has three main steps. First, the most central themes will be sorted from this database, and selection criteria applied in order to create a body of knowledge that represents the emergent policy discourse on sustainable development and social cohesion. Second, the evaluation database will be searched to find areas of weakness. Finally, this sample will be coded in order to analyse the content.

  46. METHODOLOGY Cont… This approach has the advantage of comprehensively capturing the problem areas, and is especially important given the nature of this exercise.

  47. METHODOLOGY Cont… 4.3. Summative analysis of results • The results of the primary assessment will be analysed using a summative evaluation method by identifying common desirable and undesirable outcomes and whether the premises that gave rise to the White Paper of 1996 still exist. This phase of the review will assess a combination of immediate and long-term outcomes. As a subset of the overall review of the White Paper’s strengths and weaknesses, it enables us not only to discover whether the White Paper does what it was designed to do, including unintended consequences, but provides baseline information for the construction of recommendations towards a revised draft document.

  48. METHODOLOGY Cont… 4.4. Limitations • The limitations to this evaluation should be pointed out. Firstly, the total time available to the evaluation team, including the preparation and writing of the report, is six months. This timeframe sets clear limitations to data collection. Furthermore, the challenges of establishing a general set of findings are correspondingly greater. We will address this problem by combining information from a broad range of carefully selected and representative sources. Thus, what we find will be compared with observations, as well as with relevant information from written sources.

  49. METHODOLOGY Cont… Finally, when seeking to establish the effects of development projects, a fundamental difficulty lies in how to establish whether an observed change is due to the intervention, or to other factors (or a combination of both). This problem rises in order of magnitude: the focus moves towards identifying long-term impacts over immediate results. Similarly, as one moves up in scale, seeking to establish outcomes, the difficulties increase greatly. For these reasons, firm and quantifiable conclusions on the exact outcomes of revisions cannot be made. We will therefore limit the project to the alignment of policy with desirable practical outcomes, rather than their absolute magnitude. These reservations notwithstanding, we believe that there is considerable value in the scope that such a project offers, as it allows large questions to be addressed, set out in policy terms as social cohesion and nation-building. Thus, what is lost in precision may be gained in the general findings.

  50. METHODOLOGY Cont… 4.5. Review Tools • The evaluation tools employed in this report combine two principle instruments of gathering and measuring data. • Policy directives of government and programmes of the DAC • Stakeholder consultations