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Lexis and phraseology in a systemic functional grammar Gordon Tucker Centre for Language and Communication Research Card

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Lexis and phraseology in a systemic functional grammar Gordon Tucker Centre for Language and Communication Research Card

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  1. Lexis and phraseology in a systemic functional grammar Gordon Tucker Centre for Language and Communication Research Cardiff University LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  2. The orientation of these two sessions • grammar, lexis and phraseology as linguistic phenomena • what lexical and phraseological phenomena are there to account for and model? • grammar, lexis and phraseology through the lens of SFL • how can these phenomena be modelled within a systemic functional lexicogrammar? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  3. overview • grammar and lexis in a model/theory of language • lexical phenomena to be accounted for • Cardiff SFG resources for modelling the lexicogrammar • where and how lexis is modelled in general • modelling the various phenomena • issues and problems for an SFG approach LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  4. grammar (syntax) and lexis the standard traditional view SYNTAX LEXICON interface (meaning) potential carried by syntagmatically oriented opposition paradigmatically oriented opposition LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  5. Cognitive linguistics does not accept the sharp distinction made in generative grammar between syntax and the lexicon (…..) Rather, it contends that syntax and the lexicon form a continuum of constructions ranging from very specific elements (e.g. cat, kick the bucket) to increasingly more general patterns (e.g. noun, transitive construction) (Cristiano Broccias 2006:81-82) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  6. Corpus studies, based on large collections of authentic text from a range of different sources, have provided massive evidence for the interdependence of lexis and grammar (or vocabulary and syntax). They have demonstrated that two areas that have traditionally been kept apart, both in language pedagogy and in linguistic theory, are in fact inseparable. (Römer 2009) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  7. The lexicon (….) is simply the most delicate grammar. In other words there is only one network of lexicogrammatical options (Halliday 1978:42) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  8. Lexical information (as represented in a dictionary ship /ʃɪp /nouna large boat that carries people or goods by sea: There are two restaurants on board ship.a sailing / cargo / cruise ship a ship’s captain / crew / company / cook Raw materials and labour come by ship, rail or road. They boarded a ship bound for India. When the ship docked at Southampton he was rushed to hospital.—see also AIRSHIP, FLAGSHIP, LIGHTSHIP see JUMPV., SINKV., SPOILV., TIGHT verb (-pp-) 1 [VN] to send or transport sb/sth by ship or by another means of transport: The company ships its goods all over the world. He was arrested and shipped back to the UK for trial.2 to be available to be bought; to make sth available to be bought: [v] The software is due to ship next month. [VN] The company continues to ship more computer systems than its rivals.3 [VN] ~ water (of a boat, etc.) to have water coming in over the sides see SHAPEV. ship sb off (disapproving) to send sb to a place where they will stay: The children were shipped off to a boarding school at an early age. LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  9. (Some of the) Lexical Phenomena to be Modelled 1. grammatical (syntactic) relations (e.g. the word class, grammatical environment, colligation and grammatical consequences of the choice of a given lexical sense/item) 2. morphology and phonology 3. the experiential organisation of lexis 4. collocation 5. polysemy 6. field-specificity and genre-specificity 7. phraseology – idiom – metaphor - formulaicity 8. formality 9. technicality 10. Appraisal and evaluation 11. textual cohesion (e.g. lexical cohesion in Halliday and Hasan 1976) 12. social group variation LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  10. LEXIS IN SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  11. Halliday’s ‘grammarian’s dream’ Lexis as Most Delicate Grammar (LAMDG) He [the grammarian] would like to turn the whole of linguistic form into grammar, hoping to show that lexis can be defined as ‘most delicate grammar’. The exit to lexis would then be closed, and all exponents ranged in systems. .......................... No description has yet been made so delicate that we can test whether there really comes a place where increased delicacy yields no further systems: relations at this degree of delicacy can only be stated statistically, and serious statistical work has hardly begun. (Halliday 1961) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  12. The Problem of Lexical Description It would take at least 100 volumes of the present size (689 pages: GHT) to extend the description of the grammar up to that point (grammar extended to the point of maximum delicacy) for any portion of the vocabulary of English, and as we have noted, the returns diminish the farther one proceeds) (Halliday and Matthiessen 2005:46) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  13. ‘Lexicalism’ or ‘Grammaticalism’ lexis as most delicate grammar (e.g. Halliday) grammar as most general lexis (e.g. Sinclair) lexical choice determined by grammatical choice grammatical choice determined by lexical choice or BOTH? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  14. Hoey’s Theory of Lexical Priming In this book I want to argue for a new theory of the lexicon, which amounts to a new theory of language. The theory reverses the role of lexis and grammar, arguing that lexis is complexly and systemically structured and that grammar is an outcome of lexical structure. (Hoey 2005:1) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  15. systemic functional approaches to lexis and phraseology Halliday 1961 Berry 1977 Fawcett 1980 Hasan 1985,1987 Martin 1992 Matthiessen 1990 Cross 1993 Tucker 1996a, 1996b, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2006, 2007 Wanner 1997 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  16. masc differentiated fem undifferentiated animate ANIMALHOOD human tame non-human adult MATURITY wild youthful GENDER PART OF BERRY’S GENDER SYSTEMS NETWORK (BERRY 1977:62) inanimate LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  17. Hasan 1987 ‘The Grammarian’s Dream’ gather, collect, accumulate scatter, divide, distribute, strew, spill, share LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  18. Martin (1992): Lexis and Ideation male female dog : bull canine bovine mature immature (dog) (dog : cow) bitch : cow (cow) (puppy : calf) from Martin (1992:286)

  19. SEX OF WEARER FORMALITY PART OF WEARER items of clothing non-specific specific male female unmarked casual long short closed opening (at front) on head around neck head body non-supporting supporting firm soft upper lower inner outer holes tubes extremities torso from Halliday and Matthiessen (1999:199) partitioned non-partitioned

  20. resulting selection expressions [unmarked] [non-specific] [body] [lower] [extremities] [supporting] [firm] shoe [unmarked] [non-specific] [body] [lower] [extremities] [supporting] [soft] slipper [unmarked] [non-specific] [body] [lower] [extremities] [non-supporting] [soft] sock

  21. LEXIS IN THE CARDIFF GRAMMAR LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  22. System Network and Realisation Rule Resources Available in the Cardiff Grammar for the Modelling of Lexis is the architecture of the Cardiff Grammar adequate for the representation of lexical and phraseological phenomena? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  23. the core components of a simplified systemic functional grammar (from Fawcett 2008:41) SELECTION EXPRESSION OF SEMANTIC FEATURES SYSTEM NETWORK OF SEMANTIC FEATURES MEANING re-entry REALISATION RULES AND POTENTIAL STRUCTURES ONE LAYER OF A RICHLY LABELLED TREE STRUCTURE FORM LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  24. (1) a full range of system network conventions b c d e f g h i j a o k l m n LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  25. (2) realisation rules the exponence rule 72.825 : magpie_c : h < "magpie". Rule no 72.825: expound head of nominal group by the item “magpie” ngp h magpie

  26. (4) preferences and re-entry rules 68.42 : by_age : mage @ 44, for mage prefer [quality, quality of thing, presenting quality of thing, age q], for magere-enter at entity.

  27. (5) re-entry into the system network LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  28. (3) probabilities on features in systems b 100% b 90% a a c 0% c 10% LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  29. the very first system in the Cardiff Grammar! - MODE - TECHNICALITY entity situation thing (including minor relationship with thing) quantity quality - DIALECT - ENTITY TYPE LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  30. SYSTEM NETWORK SELECTION EXPRESSION [action, two role process (1), contact, kick (3) , agent subject theme (5), information giver (6) pastness (7) , not retrospective, not modalised (31), circumstance unspecified, positive (44), etc. etc.] Cl S/Ag M C/Af ngp ngp h dd m h he kissed his little sister ‘Cl’ , S @ 33, Ag by S, m < “little” etc. (REALISATION RULES) FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE

  31. Where and how is lexis represented in the Cardiff Grammar? 1. Where? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  32. SEMANTICS GRAMMATICAL UNIT LEXICAL CLASS SituationClause lexical verb Thing nominal groupnoun Quality adjectival/adverbial group adjective adverb Minor Relationship prepositional group preposition From Semantics to Grammartical Unit to Lexical Class LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  33. eat,run, touch, break, repair etc. system network for TRANSITIVITY realised in the Clause action mental relational like, love, think, see, hear, understand etc. process type be, become, equal, representetc. LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  34. systems in the network for THING (meanings realised in the nominal group) cultural classification particularisation THING quantification premodification modification postmodification happiness mass count hammer e.g.the, this, that, these, my e.g. a, some, three, (nominal group) big, unusual which we liked LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  35. systems in the network for QUALITY (meanings realised in the adjectival and adverbial groups) quality of thing careful quality of situation carefully QUALITY ROLE QUALITY TYPE TEMPERING CO-ORDINATION relative different thing oriented big situation oriented easy environmental sunny quality presented tempered very untempered tempering sought how co-ordinated red and white not co-ordinated LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  36. Where and how is lexis represented in the Cardiff Grammar? 2. How? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  37. selecting lexical senses* and items • system network is traversed • features are collected (selection expression) • realisation rules on features are executed • lexicalisation is associated with ‘exponence’ • some element of structure (e.g. the head of the nominal group) is ‘expounded by’ some lexical (and/or) morphological item LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  38. realisation rules filling rules insert a unit of structure (e.g. clause, adjectival group) ‘ngp’(= fill an element of structure with a nominal group) componence rules insert an element of structure ‘h’ @ 84 ( = insert a ‘head’ into the ngp structure at place 84) exponence rules insert a lexical (or morphological item) h < “player” (expound the ‘head’ element with the item ‘player’) S ngp ngp h h player

  39. Cl S M C ngp ngp h dd m m h Tom Bartlett is a terrible darts player LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  40. part of a simplified ‘lexical’ system network whole head part shaft tool as such saw tool hammer tool specified screwdriver chisel drill LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  41. from grammatical to lexical choice grammatical…………………………………………lexical increase in delicacy LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  42. What lexical phenomena can be represented in an SFG approach such as the Cardiff Grammar? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  43. (Some of the) Lexical Phenomena to be Modelled 1. grammatical (syntactic) relations (e.g. the word class, grammatical environment, colligation and grammatical consequences of the choice of a given lexical sense/item) 2. morphology and phonology 3. the experiential organisation of lexis 4. collocation 5. polysemy 6. field-specificity and genre-specificity 7. phraseology – idiom – metaphor - formulaicity 8. formality 9. technicality 10. Appraisal and evaluation 11. textual cohesion (e.g. lexical cohesion in Halliday and Hasan 1976) 12. social group variation LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  44. modelling the various phenomena 1. The grammar of lexis • general grammar-lexis correlations – general colligations • the individual grammar of lexical sense/items – individual colligations LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  45. general grammar lexis correlations The grammar: assigns a lexical item to a word class through its exponence relationship with a functional element of structure M < ‘give’ h < ‘electricity’ a < ‘happy’ p < ‘with’ specifies the grammatical context(s) in which a lexical item/word class operates determiner + modifier + head + qualifier determiner + adjective + noun + relative clause/prepositional group N.B. No explicit reference to word class labels such as ‘noun’, ‘adjective’ etc. LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  46. individual grammar-lexis correlations specifies grammatical dependency associated with a lexical sense e.g. complementation of verbs, intensification and complementation of adjectives she likes to go out on Fridays she likes going out on Fridays she likes parties angry with the government angry about the decision angry at the prime minister LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  47. The Grammar of Verbs • The system of transitivity • relational mental • action environmental • influential event relating TRANSITIVITY

  48. cognition emotion perception simple perceiver affected perceiver agent perceiver perc third party agent] mental

  49. seeing feeling hearing simple perceiver LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

  50. places the M (Main Verb) in the clause • expounds the M with a lexical item (e.g. heard) • specifies and places any realised associated Participant Role(s) • specifies re-entry and preferences for the Participant Role(s) • specifies any complementation types, re-entry and preferences, particularly in the case of mental processes • e.g. he heard the intruder • he heard the intruder arriving • he heard the intruder arrive LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010