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Permanent Wave

Permanent Wave

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Permanent Wave

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  1. Permanent Wave History of permanent waving

  2. History People have attempted permanent waving since Egyptians & Romans, but were not successful. It was not until the 20th century, in 1905, that three professional permanent wave methods introduced a new art & science in cosmetology Cold waving has almost become a specialty service because of the technical knowledge & practice it demands

  3. History • 1905 – first perm machine designed by • Charles Nessler • 1906 introduced in London • Machine permanent required electricity • to heat large metal clamps that were placed • over client’s hair • Not efficient, too much equipment • Oblong heating devices hung suspended by cords & wires from a chandelier-like structure

  4. History • Women sitting underneath these contraptions had their hair covered with a chemical paste and wound around metal rods, starting from the scalp and working downward • These units were heated during the perm process • They were kept from touching the scalp by a complex system of counterbalancing weights, suspended from an overhead chandelier mounted on a stand

  5. History • The tubes of the machine were then fitted over the rod, and the curl was electronically “ baked in” • 1920’s the technique was modified • Hair was now wrapped from the ends up to the scalp in a method called “ croquignole waving • Created by Robert Bishinger, a beautician from Pittsburgh, PA

  6. History • 1930’s – came the cold wave and a new era in permanent waving • Chemicals instead of heat were used to process the hair • First cold waves took 6 – 8 hours for completion at room temperature • Term ‘overnight’ wave became popular • 1932 first machineless permanent wave • Originally designed by a hairdresser in Pennsylvania • This design removed the risk of electrical burn or shock, and didn’t require the use of a bulky piece of machinery • External heat was generated through a chemical process & preheated clamps

  7. History • Soft, small pads containing an exothermic (heat producing) mixture were wound around hair strands • Hot clamps kept the pad in place while the curl was processed • 1934-1st attempt w/out heat • Original test chemical used was palmolive shaving soap • Strand of hair was cut from scalp • Saturated w/ shaving soap • Wound around nail • Placed in aluminum foil to keep from drying out • 3 days later- unrolled & showed definite curl • Curl retained even after shampoo

  8. History • Next attempt • Waving lotion for heat waving,w/out heating the lotion • Chemicals in the waving lotion softened the hair • Lasted 6-8 hours instead of 3 days • 1938, Arnold F.Willat – birth of cold waving • Chemical lotion was sprayed directly onto set hair • 10 minutes time a client had a full head of curls

  9. History • Willat found that during the treatment hair was hydrolyzed – the protein of the hair was chemically made to combine with water instead of simply getting wet. • This process often caused many hair cells to break down & as a result the hair would break off when unrolled from the rod • Cold wave lotion, because of its low temperature, was not nearly as damaging as the heated alternative

  10. History • Women could undergo repeated cold wave perms with little or no damage to their hair • The secret was not in the application of heat, but in the chemicals themselves • 1940 – first commercial perm • 1941 a woman undergoing a perm died • Her death was attributed to absorption of ammonium sulfide • FDA immediately took the sulfide lotion off the market

  11. History • 1941 – a substitute was needed quickly • Thioglycolate appeared in the salons and worked just as well as its sulfide predecessor • 1948 FDA ruled that the new lotion was safe, and permanent waving enjoyed an even bigger surge of popularity • 1946 – salon owners became concerned • Store shelves of home permanents appeared • Campaigns were launched on the advantages of a professional perm

  12. History • Early 1950’s – different strength per solutions appeared • Additives became popular • Placenta • Mink oil • Wheat germ • 1952 – on rod method in neutralizing verses splash on method

  13. History • 1956 – finally more salon perms were administered • Slogans appeared everywhere • “Professional care is best for the hair” • TONI – the famous slogan “Which twin has the Toni?” ad landed the Toni Home Permanent Company in court when it was discovered that both twins had had their hair done in a salon, which charged $15 per treatment, as opposed to the $2 cost of a home perm • Toni was ordered to refrain from further false advertising

  14. History • 1960’s – perms and alkaline perms • Natural styles were emphasized & straight hair became the big look • By the 1960’s, scientific hair analysis had made us more aware of pH • Potential hydrogen • 1965 – “reverse perm” • Removal of undesired curl, later classified as chemical hair straighteners

  15. History • Early attempts to use chemicals to reform the hair quickly gave way to the alkaline cold waving method that is still in use today • This method utilizes a waving solution that is formulated with • Thioglycolic acid or its derivatives • Gentler curl • Ammonium hydroxide • Firmer curl

  16. History • 1970’s – acid wave was developed which help reverse the negative attitude with perming • Today • Although thioglycolic acid or a derivative is still the basic ingredient, the free ammonia or excess alkali is eliminated from the formula • This does not end the history of permanent waving because of continual exploration for the “perfect curl”

  17. Summary • Charles Nessler invented the perm machine capable of producing “permanent” curl in hair • 1st perms were called heat waves because heat and strong alkali produced the curl • 1930 cold wave introduced • Today – acid waves popular because they have a lower pH than the cold waves and produce a more natural looking curl