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Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11) PowerPoint Presentation
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Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11)

Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11)

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Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11)

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  1. Physical Evidence and the Servicescape (Chapter 11) • Gap 2 • Physical Evidence • Servicescapes • Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler

  2. Gap 2 Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 2 Company Perceptions of Customer Expectations • Key Factors Related to Physical Evidence: • Incompatible or inconsistent • Overpromising through • Lack of • Failure to develop Tangibles in line with customer expectations • Servicescape design does not • Inadequate maintenance and updating of Customer-Driven Service Designs and Standards ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler

  3. Physical Evidence • includes: (1) = the environment where the service is performed and where • background characteristics (furnishings, noise, color) • signs (2) that facilitate performance or communication of the service • can include appearance of personnel or materials • examples: • bank statements, travel brochures, business cards • mementos, souvenirs ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler

  4. Facility exterior Business cards Stationery Exterior design Billing statements Signage Reports Parking Employee dress Landscape Uniforms Surrounding environment Brochures Internet/Web pages Virtual Servicescape Facility interior Interior design Equipment Signage Layout Air quality/temperature Elements of Physical Evidence Table 10.1 ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler

  5. Examples of Physical Evidence fromthe Customer’s Point of View Service Physical evidence Servicescape Other tangibles Insurance Not applicable Policy itself Billing statements Periodic updates Company brochure Letters/cards Hospital Building exterior Uniforms Parking Reports/stationery Signs Billing statements Waiting areas Admissions office Patient care room Medical equipment Recovery room Airline Airline gate area Tickets Airplane exterior Food Airplane interior (décor, seats, air Uniforms quality) Express mail Not applicable Packaging Trucks Uniforms Computers Sporting Parking, Seating, Restrooms Signs event Stadium exterior Tickets Ticketing area, Concession Areas Program Table 10.2 Entrance, Playing Field Uniforms

  6. Servicescape Issues • Servicescape Usage: • (customer only) • (both customer and employee) • (employee only) • Complexity of the Servicescape: ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler

  7. Typology of Service Organizations Based on Variations in Form and Use of the Servicescape Table 11.3 ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler

  8. Roles of the Servicescape • P • conveys • Influences • F • facilitates • provides information (how am I to act?) • facilitates the ordering process (how does this work?) • S • facilitates interaction between: • D • sets provider apart from • e.g., • e.g., ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler

  9. A Framework for Understanding Environment-User Relationships in Service Organizations HOLISTIC ENVIRONMENT INTERNAL RESPONSES BEHAVIOR PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTAL DIMENSIONS Cognitive Emotional Physiological Individual Behaviors Employee Responses Ambient Conditions Space/Function Signs, Symbols, and Artifacts Perceived Servicescape Social Interactions between and among customer and employees Customer Responses Individual Behaviors Cognitive Emotional Physiological Figure 11.2 Source: Adapted from Mary Jo Bitner (1992) ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler

  10. Dimensions of the Servicescape • Ambient Conditions • Spatial Layout and Functionality • Signs, Symbols, Artifacts • Colors ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler

  11. Use of Color in the Servicescape • interior design (warm colors) • red: love, romance, sex, courage, danger, fire, sinful, warmth, excitement, vigor, cheerfulness, enthusiasm, and stop • yellow: sunlight, warmth, cowardice, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory, brightness, caution • orange: sunlight, warmth, openness, friendliness, gaiety, glory • interior design (cool colors) • blue: coolness, aloofness, fidelity, calmness, piety, masculine, assurance, sadness • green: coolness, restful, peace, freshness, growth, softness, richness, go • violet: coolness, retiring, dignity, rich ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler

  12. Guidelines for Physical Evidence Strategy ã 2005 - Dwayne D. Gremler