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Coupling Human and Natural Interactions in the Dynamic Coastal Landscape of the Florida Everglades Daniel L. Childers, F PowerPoint Presentation
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Coupling Human and Natural Interactions in the Dynamic Coastal Landscape of the Florida Everglades Daniel L. Childers, F

Coupling Human and Natural Interactions in the Dynamic Coastal Landscape of the Florida Everglades Daniel L. Childers, F

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Coupling Human and Natural Interactions in the Dynamic Coastal Landscape of the Florida Everglades Daniel L. Childers, F

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  1. Coupling Human and Natural Interactions in the Dynamic Coastal Landscape of the Florida Everglades Daniel L. Childers, Florida International Univ.

  2. The Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program PARTICIPATING INSTITUTIONS: Florida International Univ (Biology, Chemistry, Earth Sci, Environ.Studies, SERC, IHC) College of William & Mary Rutgers University Texas A&M University University of Louisiana-Lafayette University of Miami University of North Carolina-Wilmington University of South Florida University of Virginia Everglades National Park South Florida Water Management District U.S.G.S., BRD & WRD National Audubon Society

  3. The FCE LTER Central Theme:Following water as it flows from canal to the Gulf of Mexico through 2 different Everglades wetland basins • Long-term scenarios affecting land-ocean interactions include: • Increased freshwater flows (Everglades Restoration) • Sea level rise • Possible coastal eutrophication Land-ocean interactions: The “upside down” estuary concept: • Oligotrophic, P-limited freshwater Everglades. • Marine source of limiting nutrient to estuaries. FLORIDA SRS Transect TS/Ph Transect

  4. The FCE LTER Central Theme:Following water as it flows from canal to the Gulf of Mexico through 2 different Everglades wetland basins • Long-term scenarios affecting land-ocean interactions include: • Increased freshwater flows (Everglades Restoration) • Sea level rise • Possible coastal eutrophication Land-ocean interactions: The “upside down” estuary concept: • Oligotrophic, P-limited freshwater Everglades. • Marine source of limiting nutrient to estuaries. FLORIDA SRS Transect TS/Ph Transect

  5. Simple Conceptual Diagram of FCE I Research

  6. Shark River Slough Taylor Slough/Panhandle Freshwater inputs Saltwater inputs Low [P] High [N] Mod. [DOM] High [P] Low [N] Mod. [DOM] Productivity B A 10-30 ppt 0-10 ppt >30 ppt freshwater salinity zones The FCE LTER Central Hypothesis:Tracking water and ecosystem productivity along these transects from canal to the Gulf of Mexico FLORIDA SRS Transect TS/Ph Transect

  7. Shark River Slough Taylor Slough/Panhandle Freshwater inputs Saltwater inputs Low [P] High [N] Mod. [DOM] High [P] Low [N] Mod. [DOM] Productivity B A 10-30 ppt 0-10 ppt >30 ppt freshwater salinity zones The “Upside Down” estuaries:In the oligotrophic Everglades, the Gulf of Mexico is the primary source of the limiting nutrient (P) to the estuaries FLORIDA SRS Transect TS/Ph Transect

  8. Shark River Slough Taylor Slough/Panhandle Freshwater inputs Saltwater inputs Low [P] High [N] Mod. [DOM] High [P] Low [N] Mod. [DOM] Productivity B A 10-30 ppt 0-10 ppt >30 ppt freshwater salinity zones The FCE LTER Central Theme:We originally hypothesized a peak in ecosystem productivity in the oligohaline region of our SRS transect… FLORIDA SRS Transect TS/Ph Transect

  9. Shark River Slough Taylor Slough/Panhandle Freshwater inputs Saltwater inputs Low [P] High [N] Mod. [DOM] High [P] Low [N] Mod. [DOM] Productivity B A 10-30 ppt 0-10 ppt >30 ppt freshwater salinity zones The FCE LTER Central Theme:...and we hypothesized no such peak in ecosystem productivity in the oligohaline region of our southern Everglades transect FLORIDA SRS Transect TS/Ph Transect

  10. The Shark River Slough Transect Characteristics: Direct connection to the Gulf of Mexico. Largest Everglades drainage. Historically = dominant freshwater flow path. Current freshwater inputs controlled by canals & structures. FLORIDA SRS Transect TS/Ph Transect

  11. A virtual boat trip down the Shark River EstuarySRS-4: Freshwater ecotone, farthest from marine influence

  12. A virtual boat trip down the Shark River EstuarySRS-5: Intermediate site

  13. A virtual boat trip down the Shark River EstuarySRS-6: Closest to marine influence

  14. The Southern Everglades (TS/Ph) Transect FLORIDA Characteristics: Connection to the Gulf of Mexico only via the shallow Florida Bay estuary. Smaller drainage. Current freshwater inputs controlled by canals & structures. SRS Transect TS/Ph Transect

  15. FCE LTER program quantifies major ecosystem components to follow major energetic and biogeochemical pathways

  16. FCE I: What we originally hypothesized

  17. FCE I: What we actually learned

  18. And on to FCE II…..

  19. The Context: Everglades Restoration

  20. Simple Conceptual Diagram of FCE II Research

  21. FCE II and Tamiami Trail Characteristics: Road build in 1920s. Forms a major barrier to north-south water flow. Only 4 W.C. structures & small culverts. Decompartmentalize the landscape by removing the levee. FLORIDA SRS Transect TS/Ph Transect

  22. The Grand ExperimentFreshwater flow will increase along the SRS transect (3.2 km Tamiami Trail Bridge) during FCE II

  23. Humans and the Everglades, or…can a biophysical scientist talk about social science?Dramatic and rapid changes in the Everglades landscape and hydroscape in the last 100+ years

  24. Fresh water: A key ecosystem service provided by the Everglades South Florida’s primary water source is the shallow Biscayne Aquifer, which is recharged by the Everglades

  25. BOTE valuation of ecosystem service - purveyance of fresh water to > 6 million people • South Florida’s primary water source is the shallow Biscayne Aquifer, which is recharged by the Everglades Replacement Cost: $913,000,000 per year

  26. FCE II Human Dimensions Research Land use change as a key human driver putting numerous stresses on the Everglades

  27. Urban Development Boundary • Established in 1975 • Did not appear on Comprehensive Development Master Plan Land Use Map until 1983

  28. Urban Development Boundary • Has been “amended” many times since 1975 • Primarily for residential development (central & south) & rock mining (north)

  29. UDB represents conflicts between environmental & quality of life concerns and economic expansion (“affordable” housing?)

  30. Urban Development Boundary • Most recent “amendment” request in late 2005. • 9 large development projects, including several close to the N.Dade wellfields.

  31. Dec 05: M-D County Commission remanded decision to SFRPCJan 06: SFRPC Rejection

  32. Why a Human Dimensions effort in FCE II?Preparing for LTER Network-level science From: LTER Group of 100 Meeting, Nov. 2004 (Sklar et al.)

  33. Conceptual Model Biotic structure rank-dominance curves, life-history traits Long-term “press” e.g., N deposition, species invasions, temperature Short-term “pulse” e.g., fire, storms Human behavior (society, policy, economics) Ecosystem functioning 1/ 2 production, decomposition, nutrient cycling Ecosystem services food, pest/disease control, erosion control, soil fertility

  34. How do press & pulse disturbances interact to alter structure & the functioning of different ecosystems? How is biotic structure both a cause and consequence of ecological fluxes of energy & matter? Q2 Q1 Q3 How do changes in vital ecosystem services feed back to alter human behavior? Biotic structure rank-dominance curves, life-history traits Long-term “press” e.g., N deposition, species invasions, temperature Short-term “pulse” e.g., fire, storms Human behavior (society, policy, economics) Ecosystem functioning 1/ 2 production, decomposition, nutrient cycling Ecosystem services food, pest/disease control, erosion control, soil fertility

  35. linkages: impact scenarios, management linkages: experimental/observational results identify change linkages: adaptive modeling, valuation, forecasting Biotic structure rank-dominance curves, life-history traits Long-term “press” e.g., N deposition, species invasions, temperature Short-term “pulse” e.g., fire, storms Human behavior (society, policy, economics) Ecosystem functioning 1/ 2 production, decomposition, nutrient cycling Ecosystem services food, pest/disease control, erosion control, soil fertility

  36. The Florida Coastal Everglades LTER Program http://fcelter.fiu.edu