Sydney, Australia Results Ajani Oldacre & YuriyCzoli
Importance of the Region • Sydney Population = 4,575,532 • New South Wales Population = 7,303,700 • Melbourne Population = 4,077,036 • Australia Population = 22,852,054
Importance Cont. • Sydney accounts for 2/3rds of New South Wales employment, 1/5th of countries employed population and generates 1/4th of countries GDP. • 400,000+ international students educated in Australia yearly. 5 universities are based in Sydney, 10 in NSW. • Stock market trades at opportune time between London and New York.
Planning Issues (Foster 2006) • All major cities in Australia are fairly suburbanized and low density. • High home ownership and Automobile dependency. • Regional Differentiation has led to Access of employment issues. • Planning has become based on Economic Competitiveness, Social Justice and Environmental Sustainability.
Assessment Issues • Self identification is uncertain. Many people who could be viewed as being employed in creative industry may not identify themselves as being part of that industry. Richard Florida states that ‘members of the creative class do not see themselves as a class.’ • Many people in the cultural industry have more than one occupation. Reflecting the economics of work in creative activities, some creative workers often have a day job as well as their creative occupation. Earlier research has identified that 63% of artists have more than one job (Thorsby and Hollister 2003).
Assessment Issues Cont. • Some creative industries have a high number of volunteers and workers who are unpaid. Previous studies have shown that of the total population engaged in culture and leisure activities, 40 % were paid and 60% were unpaid (Australia council for the arts 2003, Some Australian Arts Statistics, Australia Council, Sydney.) It is expected that this attribute would carry over to the larger creative industries. (CIE pg 20) • People in the creative class can be hidden: creative industries are comprised of a variety of industries and the people in them can often be hidden in other industries. An example is dance teachers who could be classified as being in the education industry, while these creative workers should be viewed as forming part of the creative industries. (CIE)
Talent • Donegan et al. (2008) = Say creative cities argument is that the days of a high paying steady wage keeping your employees/talent are over. Arts contribute to increasing the local quality of life. • Abel & Deitz (2011) = University involvement attracts new firms and contribute to the firms ability to expand and innovate. Spill over effects benefit the larger region. • Florida et al. (2008) = Human capital levels are diverging and the disparities are increasing across regions. • Stolarick et al. (2009) = distribution of amenities strongly linked with the distribution of human capital.
Technology • Florida et al. (2008) = Established from talent, and leads to innovation that creates more tolerance. • Adoption of technological innovation key to the cities ability to sustain its growth.
Tolerance • Stolarick et al. (2009) = Tolerance generates positive attitude towards global economic activity. Tolerance a key indicator for programs and projects success rates. • Florida et al. (2008) = Culturally creative individuals can act as signal of inclusiveness that attracts other talent to the region.
Lord Mayor Clover Moore • Advocates for creative cities based planning. • Polarizing figure in popular media. “The City sponsors and promotes Mardi Gras and my questions in Parliament helped secure $400,000 annual state funding for the festival, which injects $45 million into the NSW economy each year.” • Economic boost directly associated with tolerance. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zePKD-6lki0#t=25s
Project Name: Enterprise Connect and the Creative Industries Innovation Centre • Project Developer: Australian Federal Government • Status: On-going WHY? • There is slightly higher proportion of smaller businesses in the creative industries than in the economy at large (CIE pg 55).
Client Journeys Client: Energy Action Issue: Customer Service Client: TTG Transportation Technology Issue: Management Experience Client: Simavita Issue: Funding for Research.
Project Name: Creativeinnovation • Project Developer: Australian Federal Government, University of Technology Sydney, Private Sector • Status: On-going
Project Name: 10 X 10 Project • Project Developer: Creative Sydney • Status: On-going
Project Name: NewSouth Innovation • Project Developer: The University of New South Wales • Status: On-going
Project Name: The Rocks Pop-up Project • Project Developer: The New South Wales Government • Status: Completed
Sustainable Sydney 2030 • Based on per capita GHG reduction. • Aims to bring liveability to the city. • LRT and Bike paths are a large part of this plan. • City itself leading the way with GHG reduction. • Congestion = detriment to well being of communities and limits the efficiency of existing infrastructure.
Mayors Support • “Creating a strategic master plan to guide the efficient and cost effective installation of new green energy, water and waste infrastructure.” • “Inviting private sector partners to work with us to introduce more sustainable district energy, heating and cooling (trigeneration) into Sydney, forming the basis of a network.” • “Cutting Council’s greenhouse gas emissions through improvements to buildings, installation of solar panels, more efficient fleet management and sustainable street lighting trials.”
Green Square Urban Renewal • City wants to revitalize the fastest growing area in their core. • Taking advantage of the proximity to the CBD and airport. • Mixed use project – involves town hall combined with an existing rail way stop • “No Car Growth” – big part of the sustainable initiative adopted to achieve 2030 plan.
Better Buildings Partnership • Collaborative program aimed at waste management, water and energy use. • 58% of CBDs office floor space is in the program. • Universities on the board, attempting to improve performance of existing as well as new buildings. • Public-private partnership attempting to make Sydney low-carbon capital to attract investment.
Toronto Example • Operating cost reduction will save tenants money. • Connect the clients with service providers and consultants. • Educate clients on opportunities to apply emerging technologies. • Educate clients on the governing laws in the city. • Beneficial for Sydney to get these same results to take away some of the risks involved for Foreign Firms.
Decentralized Energy • Reduction of city’s reliance on Coal produced energy. • City is leading the initiative and has implemented Tri-Generation technologies. • Waste reduction plants to be developed as source as energy. • City initiative takes pressure off businesses. • Innovation key for businesses to take advantage of this program.
Suburban Jobs Program • Connected to the National Digital Economy Strategy. • To attract jobs to Greenfield Periphery Growth. • Ran by the state government, to promote connectivity and uniformed growth. • Suburbs not acquiring jobs the way CBDs are. • Attempting to reduce congestion and increase quality of life.
BIKESydney • Grassroots initiative that now has city support. • Initiated in 2000 and in 2010 city announced plans to facilitate bike path growth. • City sees bike paths as a way to remove congestion and promote liveability. • Over half of the automobile trips initiated in Sydney, equate to less than 15 minutes on bike.
Mayors Support • “Governments have tried to address congestion by building more roads, but research and experience shows that more roads are not the answer. Without investment in light rail, heavy rail, cycling and walking, Sydney will grind to a halt.” • “Congestion costs Sydney $4.6 billion a year, which is forecast to rise to $8 billion in 2015. The costs include travel time, unreliability, higher vehicle and fuel costs, and air pollution.” • “The CBD has too many buses and they become less reliable as more are crammed in. One light rail vehicle can replace three buses.”
Opposition • Premier of NSW has started notions to remove planning power from the City of Sydney, in order to stop the Bike Paths expansions. • Wants to establish a government controlled committee. • Premier mainly worried about Sydney planning for its residents and not the commuters who come into the city. • Does not believe bike paths will aide Sydney in becoming a world city. • Mayor has stood on her position saying the government supported bike paths through funding.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5FNWfaZFmw&feature=related#t=1m00shttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5FNWfaZFmw&feature=related#t=1m00s “curse those empty bike lanes” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=vggKG0DdF5c “unfriendly system” • http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=mervEdPDSas “200 Kms of this rubbish!!!!”
Discussion • Various characteristics of the Creative industry make it more difficult to measure than traditional industries (CIE 6).
Discussion Con’t • Given the success of the grassroots initiative BIKESydney, why has it been established as a contentious issue? • Are people not educated enough on the “creative economy”? • Are you finding that a lot of your results are dependent on behavioural change?