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HIST 302 (Spring 2007) PART 2

HIST 302 (Spring 2007) PART 2. The Second Turkish Republic 1960-1980  The military takeover / coup / putsch of 27 May 1960 (27 Mayıs Devrimi / Darbesi) a)     “to prevent fratricide” (kardeş katli)

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HIST 302 (Spring 2007) PART 2

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  1. HIST 302 (Spring 2007) PART 2

  2. The Second Turkish Republic 1960-1980  The military takeover / coup / putsch of 27 May 1960(27 Mayıs Devrimi / Darbesi) a)    “to prevent fratricide” (kardeş katli) b)   “to extricate the parties from the irreconcilable situation into which they had fallen” The conspirators: a number of radical colonels, majors and captains Greeted with explosions of public joy among student an the intelligentsia The rest of the country showed no such reaction

  3. General Cemal Gürsel: as a figurehead, former commander in-chief of the land forces  National Unity Committee (NUC) (Millî Birlik Komitesi) headed by Cemal Gürsel – 38 officers - Alpaslan Turkeş – the most influential member Declaration of professors justifying the intervention: DP acted unconstitutionally The investigatory commission – Tahkikat Komisyonu became illegal

  4. Young Turks Tradition of military leadership of modernizatation ceased to be under the Single-Party regime Fevzi Çakmak = Millet Partisi Restructuring of Army in the 50s. Extensive rearming and retraining of the military (NATO) The modern army = the most progressive element The process of modernization created expectations Under the guise of Atatürkism or Kemalism Underlying factor encouraging the military to intervene: A combination of frustration & renewed self-confidence

  5. Most prestigious elements in society in the 1950’s Free professions in law, medicine, engineering and the like Military & civil servants lost ground Social background&social and economic views of the instigators of the coup NUC – discontented with DP’s economic and social policies a) A more balanced economic growth b) A more equitable distribution of wealth c) Land reform for DP social justice was not a main consideration

  6. Military Rule May 1960 – October 1961 NUC decision (3 August) to retire 235 out of 260 generals &some 5000 colonels and majors Democrat Partysuspended on 31 August & dissolved on 29 September 1960 

  7. A speedily return to constitutional rule Onar Commission – Prof. Sıddık Sami Onar A provisional constitution – 12 June 1960 giving legal basis both to the coup and to NUC The cabinet of technocrats as an executive organ To finalize the text of the constitution The Constituent Assembly(Kurucu Meclis) convened in January 1961 

  8. Consisted of two chambers • Bicameral parliament • An upper house in the legislature: • the NUC (Milli Birlik Komitesi) • 2. A lower house: 272 (Kurucu Meclis) • representatives of • a) the remaining political parties • b) the professional (occupational) groups • c) the provinces

  9. The New Constitution: (1961) The Republic is described as Nationalist [milli], democratic, secular and social Social and democratic were not in the 1924 Constitution Populist and revolutionary (1924) are omitted Legislative and executive power are no longer concentrated in the GNA [Büyük Millet Meclisi] From an assembly, or convention, system to a parliamentary one

  10. The National Assembly (Millet Meclisi)counterbalanced with other institutions to prevent a power monopolyin politics using one’s majority to become despotic

  11. 1961 Constitution derived from 3 main sources: • The historical legacy of the Constitutions of 1876 & 1924 • The experience of contemporary democratic states • Turkey’s present social needs

  12. a) Historical legacy 1876 Constitution Created an elected parliament Gave place to individual rights (limited) Gave recognition to the idea of limitation of the Sultan’s powers in the name of the people Participation of the ‘people’ in a system dominated by the Sultan The emergent principle of division of powers To replace the concentration of all legislative, executive and judicial powers in the hands of the Sultan

  13. 1924 Constitution A victory for the principle of pupular sovereignty [milli hakimiyet = halk egemenliği ] at the expence of the separation of powers Sovereignty firmly invested in the nation Nation’s soveregn rights exercised on its behalf by the GNA Only the nation and its representative GNA possessed authority GNA the source of executive as well as legislative power

  14. 1961 Constitution Provided greater degree for the separation of powers An impartial Presidency A parliamentary form of government in which a balance between government and parliament 1876 & 1924 “government withparliament” 1961 parliamentary government

  15. b) Contemporary experience Illuminated by ideas about representative democratic government Insistance on patriotism = national (rather than nationalism), on laicism, on the legitimacy of power only through elections Subjecting political power to the inspection of public opinion & political institutions.

  16. c) Present needs • Strong democratic government to carry through economic and social development in a planned way • ii) Inclusion of social rightsConstitution is a foundation stone for a democratic welfare state (refah devleti)

  17. New Institutions • Two Chambers: National Assembly [Millet Meclisi] & Senate [Senato] together Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi • The National Assembly450 membersThe supremacy of the lower house - the last voice More representative on account of its system of election by proportional representation • Term of office is 4 yearsDeputies need only be 30 years of age and be literate

  18. A second chamber : Senate (Senato)150 elected members Natural memberslife membership for member of the NUC 15 members appointed by the Presidentformer presidents The term of office of all elected and appointed senators is 6 years 1/3 of elected and appointed members of the Senate retire every 2 years Senators have to be at least 40 years of age & to have had higher education

  19. 2. An independent Constitutional Court(Anayasa Mahkemesi) to review the constitutionalityof the laws of the GNA High Council to try the President, the PM, & other ministers & highest legal personages for offences arising out of their duties Suits for annulment of laws and standing orders Suits for the closing down of political parties

  20. 3. Full autonomy for the judiciary, the universities and the mass media 4. The system of proportional representation: to prevent the division of the country into two hostile camps to lessen the chance of one partyto make single-party government unlikelyholding an overwhelming majority

  21. 5. A full bill of civil liberties - To strengthen the basic rights Social and economic rights and obligationsthe right to bargain collectively and to strikethe right to social security and medical care 6. A constitutional role for the military: the National Security Council (NSC) (Milli Güvenlik Kurulu)

  22. National Security Council March 1962 advised the government on internal and external security Members: The chief of the general staff [genel kurmay başkanı The service chiefs [kuvvet komutanları] & The ministers concerned [ilgili bakanlar] A powerful watchdog, sometimes replacing the cabinet as the center of real power and decision-making

  23. The President of the Republic A tendency to make the President an arbiter in the political struggle More distant from the GNA than formerly The requirement of political neutrality Yet, the break from Parliament is not complete

  24. President chosen by the GNAfor seven 7 years (longer term of office) by a 2/3 majority of the GNA in plenary session [NA + Senate]from among members of the GNA who are at least 40 years old + higher education should not be responsible to GNAThe president is not eligible for re-election

  25. The referendum on the new constitution (9 July 1961) A severe setback for the forces of 27 May Accepted with 61.7 against 38.3 per cent of the votes cast The ban on political activity lifted (13 January 1961) RPP & RPNPreactivated

  26. New Parties 1) The Justice Party[Adalet Partisi] headed by Ragıp Gümüşpala; retired general Primary goal full rehabilitation of the retired officers and arrested democrats 2) The Workers [Labor] Party of Turkey[Türkiye İşçi Partisi] headed by Mehmet Ali Aybar, publicist, lawyer, former University academics 3 ) The New Turkey Party[Yeni Türkiye Partisi] headed by Ekrem Alican

  27. The parliamentary elections (15 October 1961) RPP gained % 36.7 : (171 seats) disappointed JP polled % 34.7 (158 seats) The New Turkey Party got % 13.9: A continuation of the Freedom Party founded by dissident Democrats in 1955 The conservative RPNP polled % 13.4

  28. Taken together, the parties which were considered heirs to DP were still the strongest in the country The new constitution more liberal than the old one: It tolerated a wider spectrum of political activity than before, both to the left and to the right

  29. The trial of the old regime: Yassıada Mahkemeleri 31 sentenced to life imprisonment & 418 to lesser terms, while 15 sentenced to death (11 death sentence commuted) müebbed hapis Adnan Menderes, Fatin RüştüZorlu and Hasan Polatkan hanged Celal Bayar’s death sentence commuted because of his advanced age

  30. A Period of Transition – the Period of Coalitions 1961-1965 Heavy pressure on the two party to collaborate in a coalitionto be led by İsmet İnönü The First İnönü Coalition A marriage of convenience, not love Failure: a) the amnesty for the former DP politiciansb) the project for a planned economy The JP rejected as insufficient a proposal to reduce the sentences of the Democrats 

  31. The Second İnönü Coalition İnönü formed a new cabinet A coalition with the two smaller parties Many frictions The worst: the proposal for a land tax

  32. Cemal Gürsel asked the JP leader, Ragıp Gümüşpala to form a government. He failed in his attempt The Third İnönü Coalition A minority coalition of RPP and independents JP brought it down: budget is not approved A Caretaker Cabinetheaded by Suat Hayri Ürgüplü (a former diplomat)

  33. Elections in October 1965 JP won a landslide victory gaining an absolute majority of the votes cast ( % 52.9) RPP was down to % 28.7. The other parties gained les than % 7 Workers’ Party of Turkey (WPT) in the parliament: 15 deputies

  34. National remainder system NRS Milli Bakiye Sistemi % of votes = % of seats in parliament Permitted the Workers’ Party 15 seats in the assemby

  35. Demirel, prime minister.  He dominated Turkish politics for the next five years Goods years for Turkey High economic growth - % 6.9 growth rate &Continual increases in real incomes Demirel’s most important achievementReconciliation of the army & the rule by civilians The price paid: The armed forces were granted almost complete autonomy

  36. JP was a coalition of 1.    industrialists 2.    small traders and artisans 3.    peasants and large landowners 4.    religious reactionaries 5.    Western-orientated liberals It had very little ideological coherence

  37. Demirel’s frequent recourse to two tactics To preserve the unity of the party and his own position 1.Emphasis on the Islamic character of the party He stood for traditional values Flirted with leaders of Nurcu movement 2. Constant anti-communist propagandacampaign &harassment of leftist movements

  38. He became unpopular among intellectuals But his support held up well in the countryside The elections of 1969  JP suffered slight losses ( %46.5) RPP polled only % 27.4 JP formed a new cabinet Slightly more centrist than the old one

  39. Problems within JP – Opposition to Demirel. He lost the support of the most conservative wing a)Anatolian landowners & b)small traders and artisans over his proposals for new taxation to help pay for industrialization

  40. February 1970 The right wing of the JP voted with the opposition &forced Demirel to resign March 1970 New cabinet - No alternative to Demirel  Rift (split - dissention) superficially healed

  41. December 1970 JP decedents 41 deputies and senators left the JP &founded the Democratic Party (Demokratik Parti) led by Ferruh Bozbeyli its name, recalling DP

  42. Left of Center(Ortanın Solu) New definition for RPP The RPP moved left of center A new manifesto in the 1965 elections written by two coming men of RPP Turhan Feyzioğlu and Bülent Ecevit

  43. Emphasis onsocial justice and social security • without being explicitly socialist • To mobilize the votes of • workers • 2) inhabitants of the shanty towns(slum areas of towns)

  44. RPP new stance did not profit in 1965 elections Lacked credibility as a progressive party The people in the squatter towns basically villagers who had moved to the big city taking their village values with them as in the villages, they voted JP

  45. JP propogandists’ tactics: Left of center is the road to Moscow Ortanın Solu Moskova’nın Yolu

  46. After the defeat – Acrimonious (bitter) debate – Infighting Blaming “the left-of-center” tactics Extraordinary Congress of RPP - 1967 Increase of the central office’s hold over the party Party dicipline

  47. A group of 47 representatives and senators who opposed the left-of-center line left the party to found the Güven Partisi (Reliance Party) led by Turhan Feyzioğlu Right of center Ecevit’s main competitor for the position of “Crown prince” Personal jealousy

  48. The growth of political radicalism On the left: A growing student population & a growing industrial proletariat On the right: JP policies served the interests of the modern industrial bourgeoisie, of big business

  49. However, JP’s electoral base consisted of • farmers • & • b) small businessmen • They became the prime targets of both • the Islamic party • the ultra-nationalist party

  50. NAP The NAP led by Alpaslan Türkeş – an ultra-nationalist (Nationalist Action Party / Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi) Claimed to be opposed to both monopoly capitalism & communism From RPNP to NAP – 1969 Hierarchically organized, militant with ultra-nationalist program – Nine Lights (Dokuz Işık) Youth Organization – Ülkü Ocakları + Bozkurtlar

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