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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)

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  1. Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title:Draft for SG 4TV PAR and 5C Date Submitted: March 2011 Source:M.K Oh, C.H Shin, S.S Choi(ETRI), S.Y Chang(CSUS) Address: Contact Information: +82 42 860 6722, E-Mail: sschoi@etri.re.kr Re: Abstract: This contribution is prepared to provide a baseline for discussions of SG 4TV PAR and 5C. Purpose: Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release:The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15. Slide 1

  2. INTRODUCTION • This contribution is prepared to provide the baseline document for SG 4TV PAR and 5C discussions and drafting. • Based on and by making modifications and additions to previously posted documents, 15-11-0171-00, 15-11-0194-00,15-11-00215-02 and 15-11-0170-00 • The following issues were reviewed before preparing this document: • Definition of white spaces • Use cases and potential existing technologies and new possible use cases in WPAN area • Technical requirements identified for these use cases • Review of system design and similar technologies • New possible design for better performance • The following issues are addressed: • Procedures on how to proceed for the standardization of WPAN TVWS • Draft text for PAR and 5C Slide 2

  3. OTHER STANDARDS TO BE IMPLEMENTED IN THESE TV WHITE SPACE BANDS • 802.11af and 802.22 are under development for WLAN and WRAN applications • Most of 802.15 applications can be implemented using TV white space bands. • 15.1 • 15.4 • 15.4x • 15.6 • Even future 15.8 • Reasons why TV white space bands can be considered for the above technologies should be identified • Why a new standard using TV white space is needed? • The above points were considered to prepare PAR and 5C draft. • Item by item will be reviewed for PAR and 5C later. Slide 3

  4. PROCESS IN A NUTSHELL WE ARE HERE. Slide 4

  5. STEPS TO PROCEED FOR THIS PROJECT • STUDY GROUP ALREADY FORMED • Study needs and justification for WPAN TVWS • Define target use cases. • Review other existing standard technologies and identify reasons why TVWS can be used for these use cases and their technologies.  5C outputted • Discuss and decide scope • Identify technical requirements for indentified target use cases • Decide the better approaches • Decide - new PHY and MAC or amendment of other PHY and/or MAC?  PAR outputted Slide 5

  6. WHAT SHOULD BE DONE TO PREPARE PAR AND 5C • Define TV white space and its requirements. • Geolocation and database access • Sensing TV signal and other incumbent signals • Identify use cases. • Identify conceptual system level technical requirements, not detailed technical requirements from identified use cases. • Detailed system design is not necessary: these requirements can be achieved through various technologies which can be proposed later: At this stage, a specific technology does not need to be considered for this standard. • Judge whether these requirements can justify the need to use TV white space for applying existing standard technologies (and possibly new technologies). • Review existing technologies first. • Identify advantages from use of TV white space • Prepare PAR and 5C based on technical requirements identified. Slide 6

  7. CANDIDATE TECHNOLOGIES IN TV WhiteSpace • Potential technologies to be served in a TV channel band • ZigBee: • low rate, 250Kbps, DSSS, O-QPSK • Bluetooth: • high rate, FHSS, • GFSK for 1 Mbps, π/4-DQPSK for 2 Mbps, 8-DQPSK for 3 Mbps. • SUN • RFID. Slide 6

  8. ONE POSSIBLE FREQUENCY BAND USAGE FOR ONE TV CHANNEL • Frequency band usage Whole TV white space band available TV channel 2 TV channel 3 TV channel 4 TV channel 5 TV channel 51 f One TV channel band Guard band For 15.4x For 15.4y For 15.4z For 15.4w f Slide 6

  9. Another POSSIBLE FREQUENCY BAND USAGE FOR ONE TV CHANNEL • At this moment, only FSK SUN and OFDM SUN are considered Whole TV white space band available TV channel 2 TV channel 3 TV channel 4 TV channel 5 TV channel 51 f One TV channel band Guard band Guard band For 802.15.4g SUN FSK-SUN OFDM OFDM OFDM OFDM …. f Slide 6

  10. CONTENTS OF PAR AND 5C • Title • Project Authorization Request (PAR) • Scope of Proposed Standard • Purpose of Proposed Standard • Need for the Project • Stakeholders for the Standard • 5C • Broad Market Potential • Compatibility • Distinct Identity • Technical Feasibility • Economic Feasibility Slide 7

  11. TITLE OF THE PROJECT Title: • Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements - Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) - Amendment: MAC and PHY Specifications of Smart Utility Networks for operating in TV White Space. 15.3a: Amendment to Standard for Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - LAN/MAN Specific Requirements - Part 15.3: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Higher Speed Physical Layer Extension for the High Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) 15.4g: IEEE Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements - Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) - Amendment: Physical Layer(PHY) Specifications for Low Data Rate Wireless Smart Metering Utility Networks) 15.6: Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements - Part 15.6: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)used in or around a body. 802.11af: IEEE Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications - Amendment: TV White Spaces Operation 802.22: Standard for Information Technology -Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN) - Specific requirements - Part 22: Cognitive Wireless RAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Policies and procedures for operation in the TV Bands Slide 8

  12. PAR: SCOPE OF PROPOSED STANDARD (1) Slide 9

  13. PAR: SCOPE OF PROPOSED STANDARD (2) Scope: This standard provides an amendment that defines the PHY and MAC modifications optimized to realize IEEE 802.15.4g FSK and OFDM technologies in TV white space bands, providing data rates from 50 kbps to 2 Mbps to meet the legal requirements for channel access and coexistence in the TV White Space. (More information regarding this project is provided in Section 8.1.) 802.11af: An amendment that defines modifications to both the 802.11 physical layers (PHY) and the 802.11 Medium Access Control Layer (MAC), to meet the legal requirements for channel access and coexistence in the TV White Space. 802.22: This standard specifies the air interface, including the cognitive medium access control layer (MAC) and physical layer (PHY), of point-to-multipoint wireless regional area networks comprised of a professional fixed base station with fixed and portable user terminals operating in the VHF/UHF TV broadcast bands between 54 MHz and 862 MHz. Scope of Proposed Project: Projected output including technical boundaries: REVISED STANDARDS - Projected output including the scope of the original standard, amendments and additions. Please be brief (less than 5 lines). Slide 10

  14. PAR: PURPOSE OF PROPOSED STANDARD (1) Slide 11

  15. PAR: PURPOSE OF PROPOSED STANDARD (2) Purpose: The purpose of this standard is to allow 802.15.4g wireless networks to be used in the TV white space with only FSK and OFDM modulations to increase data rates. 802.11af: The purpose of this amendment is to allow 802.11 wireless networks to be used in the TV white space. 802.22: This standard is intended to enable deployment of interoperable 802 multivendor wireless regional area network products, to facilitate competition in broadband access by providing alternatives to wireline broadband access and extending the deployability of such systems into diverse geographic areas, including sparsely populated rural areas, while preventing harmful interference to incumbent licensed services in the TV broadcast bands. Purpose of Proposed Project: Intended users and user benefits: REVISION STANDARDS - Purpose of the original standard and reason for the standard's revision. Please be brief (less than 5 lines). Slide 12

  16. PAR: NEEDS FOR PROJECT (1) Slide 13

  17. PAR: NEEDS FOR PROJECT (2) Need for the Project: With the global transition to Digital TV (DTV), sub-Gigahertz RF spectrum is becoming available, much of it for unlicensed, license exempt and/or lightly licensed use. This project will make the necessary MAC and PHY changes to enable 802.15.4g products to take advantage of this additional spectrum with its improved propagation characteristics and improved indoor wall penetration and hence range. 802.11af: With the global transition to Digital TV (DTV), sub-Gigahertz RF spectrum is becoming available, much of it for unlicensed, license exempt and/or lightly licensed use. This project will make the necessary MAC and PHY changes to enable 802.11 products to take advantage of this additional spectrum with its improved propagation characteristics and improved indoor wall penetration and hence range. 802.22: There is a large, untapped market for broadband wireless access in rural and other unserved/underserved areas where wired infrastructure cannot be economically deployed. Products based on this standard will be able to serve those markets and increase the efficiency of spectrum utilization in spectrum currently allocated to, but unused by, the TV broadcast service. Slide 14

  18. PAR: STAKEHOLDERS FOR THE STANDARD Stakeholders for the Standard: Manufacturers and users of semiconductor, home networking equipment, mobile devices and utility control/monitoring devices. Slide 15

  19. PAR: ADDITIONAL EXPLANATORY NOTES 8.1 Additional Explanatory Notes (Item Number and Explanation): 5.2 Scope - TV White Space is defined in the US by the November 2008 FCC Part 15 Subpart H Television Band Devices rules and the September 2010 FCC 10-174 Second Memorandum Opinion and Order. Ofcom (UK) is in the process of making this Digital Dividend band available, and the EU has conducted a consultation on the TV band. The project will adapt to changes in the regulations, as they progress. It is in the best interest of users and the industry to strive for a level of coexistence between wireless systems in the TVWS bands.  This standard provides mechanisms for coexistence with other systems operating in the TV bands.  802.11af: 5.2 Scope - TV White Space is defined in the US by the November 2008 FCC Part 15 Subpart H Television Band Devices rules. Ofcom (UK) is in the process of making this Digital Dividend band available, and the EU has conducted a consultation on the TV band. The project will adapt to changes in the regulations, as they progress. It is in the best interest of users and the industry to strive for a level of coexistence between wireless systems in the TVWS bands.  This standard provides mechanisms for coexistence with other systems operating in the TV bands.  802.22: Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) – a point-to-multipoint network for operation over large, potentially sparsely populated areas (e.g. rural areas) for fixed user terminals, taking advantage of the favorable propagation characteristics in the VHF and low UHF TV bands as well as for portable user terminals operating over a likely smaller area with sufficient margin to the fixed base station. The unique requirements of operating on a strict non-interference basis in spectrum assigned to, but unused by, the incumbent licensed services requires a new approach using purpose-designed cognitive radio techniques that will permeate both the PHY and MAC layers. The IEEE 802.18 Study Group chartered to develop this PAR does not believe that any existing IEEE 802 PHY/MAC combination can meet these requirements without extensive modifications. The Study Group has therefore concluded that placing the project in a new Working Group is the most efficient approach. The Working Group will maintain ongoing communications with the joint effort of the IEEE Communications and EMC Societies as it determines the technical definition of non-interference, harmful interference, their measurement and acceptable mitigation. It is in the best interest of users and the industry to strive for a level of coexistence between wireless systems. The IEEE 802.22 WG provides mechanisms for coexistence with other systems in the TVWS band. One approach is a common coexistence mechanism that may be used by other TVWS systems; other approaches are also possible. Slide 14

  20. 5C: 1. BROAD MARKET POTENTIAL (1) a) Broad sets of applicability. • On November 4, 2008, the United States FCC approved Report & Order 08-260, allowing unlicensed use of TV band spectrum, in accordance with Part 15. Subpart H of FCC rules. Ofcom (UK) is in the process of making this Digital Dividend band available, and the EU has conducted a consultation on the band. Other regulatory domains are expected to follow. • By applying this TV white space, a variety of WPAN existing applications enjoy  advantages of this space over the bands assigned so far. It opens up markets with its unique features and provides broad sets of applicability. • b) Multiple vendors and numerous users • The standard will be optimized to meet the cost and other requirements to ensure broadening the markets and increasing the number of target users by utilizing advantages of TV white space. • Current Wireless services in these WPAN areas use the 700 MHz, 1 GHz and 2.4 GHz bands, with data rate of at least 40 kbits per second but not more than 1000 kbits per second. There are many vendors of IEEE 802 wireless equipment for indoor and outdoor operation, and it is expected that there will be several offering equipment for this band. c) Balanced costs (LAN versus attached stations) • The changes to meet FCC regulatory requirements are not expected to impact the cost of clients versus base stations, which is expected to be the same as the 2 GHz bands. The registration costs for operation in this band are not significant, unlike spectrum in bands that are auctioned. Slide 17

  21. 5C: 1. BROAD MARKET POTENTIAL (2) 802.11af A standards project authorized by IEEE 802 shall have a broad market potential. Specifically, it shall have the potential for: a) Broad sets of applicability. On November 4, 2008, the United States FCC approved Report & Order 08-260, allowing unlicensed use of TV band spectrum, in accordance with Part 15. Subpart H of FCC rules. Ofcom (UK) is in the process of making this Digital Dividend band available, and the EU has conducted a consultation on the band. Other regulatory domains are expected to follow. b) Multiple vendors and numerous users. Current Wireless ISP services in these areas use the 900 MHz, 2.45 GHz and 5 GHz bands, operating under Part 15 rules. There are many vendors of IEEE 802 wireless equipment for indoor and outdoor operation, and it is expected that there will be several offering equipment for this band. c) Balanced costs (LAN versus attached stations). The changes to meet FCC regulatory requirements are not expected to impact the cost of clients versus base stations, which is expected to be the same as the 5 GHz bands. The registration costs for operation in this band are not significant, unlike spectrum in bands that are auctioned. Slide 18

  22. 5C: 2. COMPATIBILITY (1) IEEE 802 defines a family of standards. All standards shall be in conformance with the IEEE 802.1 Architecture, Management, and Interworking documents as follows: 802 Overview and Architecture, 802.1D, 802.1Q, and parts of 802.1f. If any variances in conformance emerge, they shall be thoroughly disclosed and reviewed with 802.1. Each standard in the IEEE 802 family of standards shall include a definition of managed objects which are compatible with systems management standards. This standard will be compatible with the IEEE 802 requirements of Architecture, Management, and Inter-networking documents as required. There is no specific technology feature anticipated in the standard that could preclude this compliance. 802.11af IEEE 802 defines a family of standards. All standards shall be in conformance with the IEEE 802.1 Architecture, Management, and Interworking documents as follows: 802. Overview and Architecture, 802.1D, 802.1Q, and parts of 802.1f. If any variances in conformance emerge, they shall be thoroughly disclosed and reviewed with 802. Each standard in the IEEE 802 family of standards shall include a definition of managed objects that are compatible with systems management standards. Compatibility with IEEE 802 requirements will result from keeping the MAC SAP interface the same as for the existing 802.11 standard. The proposed amendment shall introduce no 802.1 architectural changes. The MAC SAP definition shall not be altered, ensuring that all LLC and MAC interfaces are compatible to and in conformance with the IEEE 802.1 Architecture, Management and Internetworking standards. New managed objects shall be defined as necessary in a format and structure consistent with existing 802.11 managed objects. Slide 19

  23. 5C: 2. COMPATIBILITY (2) 802.11af IEEE 802 defines a family of standards. All standards shall be in conformance with the IEEE 802.1 Architecture, Management, and Interworking documents as follows: 802. Overview and Architecture, 802.1D, 802.1Q, and parts of 802.1f. If any variances in conformance emerge, they shall be thoroughly disclosed and reviewed with 802. Each standard in the IEEE 802 family of standards shall include a definition of managed objects that are compatible with systems management standards. Compatibility with IEEE 802 requirements will result from keeping the MAC SAP interface the same as for the existing 802.11 standard. The proposed amendment shall introduce no 802.1 architectural changes. The MAC SAP definition shall not be altered, ensuring that all LLC and MAC interfaces are compatible to and in conformance with the IEEE 802.1 Architecture, Management and Internetworking standards. New managed objects shall be defined as necessary in a format and structure consistent with existing 802.11 managed objects. Slide 19

  24. 5C: 3. DISTINCT INDENTITY (1) a) Substantially different from other IEEE 802 standards There are no other IEEE 802 projects specifically addressing WPAN personal/portable operation under FCC Part 15 Subpart H. Slide 21

  25. 5C: 3. DISTINCT INDENTITY (2) a) Substantially different from other IEEE 802 standards (cont’d) Systems compliant to IEEE 802.16-2009 can operate in the TV bands in other regulatory domains and a coexistence protocol for P802.16h systems currently being addressed in the P802.16h project could be employed by devices operating in the US TV bands. P802.22 is working on a cognitive radio approach to sharing unused channels in the 54 MHz to 862 MHz TV broadcast bands, using spectrum sensing and location information to determine whether given transmit frequencies and power levels will cause harmful interference to licensed services. P802.11af is working to facilitate WLAN personal/portable operation. Neither of these projects currently addresses WPAN personal/portable operation under FCC Part 15 Subpart H rules. Slide 21

  26. 5C: 3. DISTINCT INDENTITY (3) b) One unique solution per problem(not two solutions to a problem) The TVWS WPAN Standard will consist of one Medium Access Control and Physical Layer per problem. The standard will address a unique solution for TVWS WPAN in free space. The 802.15 Project will define radio extensions, such that fixed stations and personal/portable stations can be operated in conformance to FCC Part 15 Subpart H rules. The central aspect of the ruling is accessing a TV bands database over the internet for all present and most future operation in the band. The project will define a protocol that consists of procedures for initiating new transmissions, procedures for determining the state of the channel (available or unavailable), and procedures for managing retransmissions in the event of a busy channel or incumbent occupancy. c) Easy for the document reader to select the relevant specification The proposed standard will be a distinct document with clearly distinguishable specifications. Slide 22

  27. 5C: 3. DISTINCT INDENTITY (4) 802.11af • Substantially different from other IEEE 802 standards There are no other IEEE 802 projects specifically addressing WLAN personal/portable operation under FCC Part 15 Subpart H. Systems compliant to IEEE 802.16-2009 can operate in the TV bands in other regulatory domains and a coexistence protocol for P802.16h systems currently being addressed in the P802.16h project could be employed by devices operating in the US TV bands. P802.22 is working on a cognitive radio approach to sharing unused channels in the 54 MHz to 862 MHz TV broadcast bands, using spectrum sensing and location information to determine whether given transmit frequencies and power levels will cause harmful interference to licensed services. Neither of these projects currently addresses WLAN personal/portable operation under FCC Part 15 Subpart H rules. Slide 21

  28. 5C: 3. DISTINCT INDENTITY (5) 802.11af b) One unique solution per problem(not two solutions to a problem) The 802.11 Project will define radio extensions, such that fixed stations and personal/portable stations can be operated in conformance to FCC Part 15 Subpart H rules. The central aspect of the ruling is accessing a TV bands database over the internet for all present and most future operation in the band. The project will define a protocol that consists of procedures for initiating new transmissions, procedures for determining the state of the channel (available or unavailable), and procedures for managing retransmissions in the event of a busy channel or incumbent occupancy. 802.16-2009 provides full mobile operation; 802.16h amendment covers fixed (including Nomadic operation). c) Easy for the document reader to select the relevant specification The Project will produce an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 specification. Slide 22

  29. 5C: 4. TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY (1) a) Demonstrated system feasibility There have been sufficient simulations, test results, and demonstrations verifying that TVWS WPAN implementations are feasible. b) Proven technology, reasonable testing There are examples of technology that are well proven both by laboratory testing and market acceptance today, which will allow the design and fabrication of TVWS WPAN systems. c) Confidence in reliability Previously demonstrated prototypes provide confidence in the reliability of the proposed project. A coexistence assurance document will be submitted to the 802.19 TAG. Slide 24

  30. 5C: 4. TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY (2) • 802.11af • For a project to be authorized, it shall be able to show its technical feasibility. At a minimum, the proposed project shall show: • a) Demonstrated system feasibility. Equipment that conforms to IEEE 802.11a and having frequency agility, the ability to sense signals from other transmitters, adaptive modulation, and Transmit Power Control are in use today in the 5.8 and 5.3 GHz band, sharing it with equipment approved under ISM and U-NII rules. • b) Proven technology, reasonable testing. The main components of radio technology and signalling are in use today. • c) Confidence in reliability. There are IEEE 802.11 systems in operation today, and their reliability is factored into the services offered. The Part 15 Subpart H TV Bands Device is expected to be as reliable as current CSMA-CA operation. • 17.5.4.1 Coexistence of 802 wireless standards specifying devices for unlicensed operation • A working group proposing a wireless project is required to demonstrate coexistence through the preparation of a Coexistence Assurance (CA) document unless it is not applicable. The Working Group will create a CA document as part of the WG balloting process. If the Working Group elects not to create a CA document, it will explain to the EC the reason the CA document is not applicable. • The working group will create a CA document as part of the WG balloting process. The WG will maintain liaisons with the other WGs regarding coexistence in the TVWS. IEEE 802.11 will provide WG drafts with CA documents to 802.19 and 802.22 members for review and WG balloting. Slide 25

  31. 5C: 5. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY (1) a) Known cost factors, reliable data High volume devices and applications like mobile phones will enable a low cost source of TVWS WPAN components. Development efforts for TVWS WPAN will ensure a cost that is consistent with reasonable business strategy. b) Reasonable cost for performance Based on performance and related costs of other systems which utilize the same core components, the estimates of the size, cost, and power requirements will meet the expectations. c) Consideration of installation costs The TVWS WPAN Standard objectives will have no impact on installation costs. Slide 27

  32. 5C: 5. ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY (2) 802.11af For a project to be authorized, it shall be able to show economic feasibility (so far as can reasonably be estimated) for its intended applications. At a minimum, the proposed project shall show: a) Known cost factors, reliable data. The fundamental radio and baseband architecture of the WLAN is well known, and adding another supported band is a well-understood process. b) Reasonable cost for performance. The extension of IEEE 802.11a products and/or chipsets to cover TV band operation is similar in cost to that of adding 3650 MHz operation as specified in IEEE 802.11y. c) Consideration of installation costs. The installation cost of Part 15 Subpart H compliant WLAN equipment will not change from that of installing current 5 GHz band equipment. Slide 27

  33. CONCLUSIONS: PAR AND 5C PROPOSED • PAR and 5C draft proposed in this document • By reviewing PARs and 5Cs of other groups • By applying TVWS bands to 802.15.4g applications • By emphasizing technical differences between TVWS characteristics and existing technologies • The presenter prepared this document with a hope for this document to be the baseline for further discussions on TVWS WPAN PAR and 5C which will be performed in the March 2011 Singapore meeting. Slide 28

  34. REFERENCES 1. 11-09-0934-09-tvws-par-nescom-form-plus-5c • 15-11-0039-00-04tv-introduction-of-tv-white-space • 15-11-0170-00-04tv-components-of-par-and-5c-documents • FCC 10-174, Second Memorandum Opinion and Order, Federal Communications Commission, September 23, 2010 Slide 29

  35. Annex SOME PAR SAMPLES FROM OTHER STANDARDS Slide 30

  36. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (1) 802.22 • Title: Standard for Information Technology -Telecommunications and information exchange between systems - Wireless Regional Area Networks (WRAN) - Specific requirements - Part 22: Cognitive Wireless RAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Policies and procedures for operation in the TV Bands • Scope: This standard specifies the air interface, including the cognitive medium access control layer (MAC) and physical layer (PHY), of point-to-multipoint wireless regional area networks comprised of a professional fixed base station with fixed and portable user terminals operating in the VHF/UHF TV broadcast bands between 54 MHz and 862 MHz. • Purpose:This standard is intended to enable deployment of interoperable 802 multivendor wireless regional area network products, to facilitate competition in broadband access by providing alternatives to wireline broadband access and extending the deployability of such systems into diverse geographic areas, including sparsely populated rural areas, while preventing harmful interference to incumbent licensed services in the TV broadcast bands. Slide 31

  37. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (2) 802.22 • Need for the Project: There is a large, untapped market for broadband wireless access in rural and other unserved/underserved areas where wired infrastructure cannot be economically deployed. Products based on this standard will be able to serve those markets and increase the efficiency of spectrum utilization in spectrum currently allocated to, but unused by, the TV broadcast service. • Stakeholders for the Standard: Manufacturers and users of semiconductor, personal computer, enterprise networking devices, consumer electronic devices, home networking equipment, mobile devices. • 8.1 Additional Explanatory Notes (Item Number and Explanation): Wireless Regional Area Network (WRAN) – a point-to-multipoint network for operation over large, potentially sparsely populated areas (e.g. rural areas) for fixed user terminals, taking advantage of the favorable propagation characteristics in the VHF and low UHF TV bands as well as for portable user terminals operating over a likely smaller area with sufficient margin to the fixed base station. The unique requirements of operating on a strict non-interference basis in spectrum assigned to, but unused by, the incumbent licensed services requires a new approach using purpose-designed cognitive radio techniques that will permeate both the PHY and MAC layers. The IEEE 802.18 Study Group chartered to develop this PAR does not believe that any existing IEEE 802 PHY/MAC combination can meet these requirements without extensive modifications. The Study Group has therefore concluded that placing the project in a new Working Group is the most efficient approach. The Working Group will maintain ongoing communications with the joint effort of the IEEE Communications and EMC Societies as it determines the technical definition of non-interference, harmful interference, their measurement and acceptable mitigation. It is in the best interest of users and the industry to strive for a level of coexistence between wireless systems. The IEEE 802.22 WG provides mechanisms for coexistence with other systems in the TVWS band. One approach is a common coexistence mechanism that may be used by other TVWS systems; other approaches are also possible. Slide 31

  38. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (3) 802.11af Wireless LAN in the TV White Space • Title: IEEE Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements - Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications - Amendment: TV White Spaces Operation • Scope: An amendment that defines modifications to both the 802.11 physical layers (PHY) and the 802.11 Medium Access Control Layer (MAC), to meet the legal requirements for channel access and coexistence in the TV White Space. • Purpose:The purpose of this amendment is to allow 802.11 wireless networks to be used in the TV white space. Slide 31

  39. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (4) 802.11af Wireless LAN in the TV White Space • Need for the Project: With the global transition to Digital TV (DTV), sub-Gigahertz RF spectrum is becoming available, much of it for unlicensed, license exempt and/or lightly licensed use. This project will make the necessary MAC and PHY changes to enable 802.11 products to take advantage of this additional spectrum with its improved propagation characteristics and improved indoor wall penetration and hence range. • Stakeholders for the Standard: Manufacturers and users of semiconductor, personal computer, enterprise networking devices, consumer electronic devices, home networking equipment, mobile devices. • 8.1 Additional Explanatory Notes (Item Number and Explanation): 5.2 Scope - TV White Space is defined in the US by the November 2008 FCC Part 15 Subpart H Television Band Devices rules. Ofcom (UK) is in the process of making this Digital Dividend band available, and the EU has conducted a consultation on the TV band. The project will adapt to changes in the regulations, as they progress. It is in the best interest of users and the industry to strive for a level of coexistence between wireless systems in the TVWS bands.  This standard provides mechanisms for coexistence with other systems operating in the TV bands.  Slide 31

  40. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (5) 15.3a • Title: Amendment to Standard for Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - LAN/MAN Specific Requirements - Part 15.3: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications: Higher Speed Physical Layer Extension for the High Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN) • Scope: From: This project will define an alternative PHY clause for a higher data rate amendment to standard 802.15.3. To: This project will define an alternative PHY clause, in the frequency range of up to 24GHz, for a higher data rate amendment to standard 802.15.3. • Purpose:The intent of this project is to provide a standard for a low complexity, low cost, low power consumption alternate PHY for 802.15.3 (comparable to the goals for 802.15.3). The data rate will be high enough, 110 Mb/s or more (see 18a), to satisfy an evolutionary set of consumer multi-media industry needs for WPAN communications. The project will address the requirements to support multimedia data types in multiple compliant co-located systems and also coexistence (18b). Slide 31

  41. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (6) 15.4g • Title of Standard: : IEEE Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements - Part 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) - Amendment: Physical Layer(PHY) Specifications for Low Data Rate Wireless Smart Metering Utility Networks) • Scope: (See explanatory notes in Section 8.1) This Standard defines an amendment to IEEE 802.15.4. It addresses principally outdoor Low Data Rate Wireless Smart Metering Utility Network requirements. It defines an alternate PHY and only those MAC modifications needed to support its implementation. Specifically, the amendment supports all of the following: • Operation in any of the regionally available license exempt frequency bands, such as 700MHz to 1GHz, and the 2.4 GHz band. • Data rate of at least 40 kbits per second but not more than 1000 kbits per second • Achieve the optimal energy efficient link margin given the environmental conditions encountered in Smart Metering deployments. • Principally outdoor communications • PHY frame sizes up to a minimum of 1500 octets • Simultaneous operation for at least 3 co-located orthogonal networks • Connectivity to at least one thousand direct neighbors characteristic of dense urban deployment Provides mechanisms that enable coexistence with other systems in the same band(s) including IEEE 802.11, 802.15 and 802.16 systems Slide 32

  42. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (7) 15.4g • Purpose:To provide a global standard that facilitates very large scale process control applications such as the utility smart-grid network. This amendment supports large, geographically diverse networks with minimal infrastructure. Smart Metering Utility Networks can potentially contain millions of fixed endpoints. The communication range, robustness, and coexistence characteristics required for this class of application have not been met with existing 802 standards (See explanatory notes in Section 8.1). • Need for the Project: The need for a standard to promote orderly and quick evolution of smart-grid networks has been recognized in the recently passed energy legislation by the U.S. Congress (EISA 2007; Energy Independence & Security Act of 2007), which calls on National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to work with standards bodies (such as IEEE) to develop protocols and standards for the smart-grid network. In the European Union, the need is no less urgent and similar standardization mandates, such as the EU’s 20/20/20 plan, are in process worldwide. The responses received by and presented to the 15.4g Study Group indicate an already large and rapidly growing market for wireless Smart Metering applications that fit the objectives of 802.15, but are not satisfied by existing IEEE 802 standards. (See explanatory notes in Section 8.1). The 802.15.4g Study Group tutorial held in Denver in July 2008 was attended by well over 100 participants. More than 40 participants responded to the call for interest in participating in the 802.15.4g standardization activity. Utility networking and very large scale industrial applications have requirements to keep infrastructure to a minimum, scale to millions of nodes across diverse geographical environments, and do so with carrier grade reliability. To reach every node in the network a Wireless Smart Metering Utility Network needs the capability to vary radio range while providing for high spectral reuse (See explanatory notes in Section 8.1). Slide 33

  43. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (8) 15.5 • Title: Recommended practices for mesh topology capability in Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs). • Scope: To provide a recommended practice to provide the architectural framework enabling WPAN devices to promote interoperable, stable, and scaleable wireless mesh topologies and, if needed, to provide the amendment text to the current WPAN standards that is required to implement this recommended practice. • Purpose:This project facilitates wireless mesh topologies optimized for IEEE 802.15 WPANs.Mesh Topologies provide: • Extension of network coverage without increasing the transmit power or the receiver sensitivity • Enhanced reliability via route redundancy • Easier network configuration • Better device battery life Slide 34

  44. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (9) 15.6 • Title of Standard: : Standard for Information Technology - Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements - Part 15.6: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs)used in or around a body. • Scope: This is a standard for short range, wireless communication in the vicinity of, or inside, a human body (but not limited to humans). It can use existing ISM bands as well as frequency bands approved by national medical and/or regulatory authorities. Support for Quality of Service (QoS), extremely low power, and data rates up to 10 Mbps is required while simultaneously complying with strict non-interference guidelines where needed. This standard considers effects on portable antennas due to the presence of a person (varying with male, female, skinny, heavy, etc.), radiation pattern shaping to minimize SAR* into the body, and changes in characteristics as a result of the user motions. *SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) measured in (W/kg) = (J/kg/s). SAR is regulated, with limits for local exposure (Head) of: in US: 1.6 W/kg in 1 gram and in EU: 2 W/kg in 10 gram. This limits the transmit (TX) power in US < 1.6 mW and in EU < 20 mW. Slide 35

  45. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (10) 15.6 • Purpose:The purpose is to provide an international standard for a short range (ie about human body range), low power and highly reliable wireless communication for use in close proximity to, or inside, a human body. Data rates, typically up to 10Mbps, can be offered to satisfy an evolutionary set of entertainment and healthcare services. Current Personal Area Networks (PAN)s do not meet the medical (proximity to human tissue) and relevant communication regulations for some application environments. They also do not support the combination of reliability (QoS), low power, data rate and noninterference required to broadly address the breadth of body area network applications. • Need for the Project: There is a need for a standard optimized for ultra low power devices and operation on, in or around the human body to serve a variety of applications including medical and personal entertainment. Examples of the applications served by the proposed standard are: Electroencephalogram (EEG), Electrocardiogram (ECG), Electromyography (EMG), vital signals monitoring (temperature (wearable thermometer), respiratory, wearable heart rate monitor, wearable pulse oximeter, wearable blood pressure monitor, oxygen, pH value , wearable glucose sensor, implanted glucose sensor, cardiac arrhythmia), wireless capsule endoscope (gastrointestinal), wireless capsule for drug delivery, deep brain stimulator, cortical stimulator (visual neuro-stimulator, audio neuro stimulator, Parkinson’s disease, etc…), remote control of medical devices such as pacemaker, actuators, insulin pump, hearing aid (wearable and implanted), retina implants, disability assistance, such as muscle tension sensing and stimulation, wearable weighing scale, fall detection, aiding sport training. This will include body-centric solutions for future wearable computers. In a similar vein, the same technology can provide effective solutions for personal entertainment as well. The existence of a body area network standard will provide opportunities to expand these product features, better healthcare and well being for the users. It will therefore result in economic opportunity for technology component suppliers and equipment manufacturers. Slide 36

  46. SAMPLE PARS FROM OTHER STANDARDS (11) 15.7 • Title of Standard: PHY and MAC standard for short-range wireless optical communication using visible light • Scope: This standard defines a PHY and MAC layer for short-range optical wireless communications using visible light. The visible light spectrum extends from 380 to 780 nm in wavelength. The standard is capable of delivering data rates sufficient to support audio and video multimedia services and also considers mobility of the visible link; compatibility with visible-light infrastructures; impairments due to noise and interference from, e.g., ambient light; health and other environmental effects; and a MAC layer that accommodates visible links. The standard will adhere to any applicable eye safety regulations • Purpose:The purpose of this standard is to provide a global standard for short-range optical wireless communication using visible light. The standard will provide (i) access to several hundred THz of unlicensed spectrum; (ii) immunity to electromagnetic interference and noninterference with RF systems; (iii) additional security by allowing the user to see the communication channel; and (iv) communication augmenting and complementing existing services (such as illumination, display, indication, decoration, etc.) from visible-light infrastructures. • Need for the Project: Visible light is drawing great interest as a new communication medium due to the following recent developments. Firstly, solid-state light sources are rapidly replacing conventional ones in signaling, illumination and display infrastructures. It thus becomes possible to carry communication data on such light sources. Secondly, the visible band is free from frequency regulation and RF interference so that it is well suited to RF crowded or RF restricted environments. Thirdly, the unique feature of visibility can enhance the physical-layer security and offer intuitive usage. Given the growing expectation of ubiquitous connectivity in all settings and environments, the need for unlicensed, high bandwidth, easy to use wireless communications technology has never been greater. Potential applications include secure point-to-point communication, indoor Location Based Service (LBS), secure point-to-Multipoint communication (office, hospital, airplane), Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), information broadcast, and etc. A visible light communication standard will provide economic opportunities to equipment manufacturers, component suppliers, service providers, and infrastructure operators. Slide 37