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Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [Codes for preamble a

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## Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [Codes for preamble a

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**Project: IEEE P802.15 Working Group for Wireless Personal**Area Networks (WPANs) Submission Title: [Codes for preamble and data] Date Submitted: [7 June, 2005] Source: [Michael Mc Laughlin] Company [Decawave Ltd.] Address [25 Meadowfield, Sandyford, Dublin 18, Ireland] Voice:[+353−1−2954937 ], FAX: [What’s a FAX?], E−Mail: [michael@decawave.com] Re: [802.15.4a.] Abstract: [Discusses the desirable properties of spreading sequences] Purpose: [To promote discussion in 802.15.4a.] Notice: This document has been prepared to assist the IEEE P802.15. It is offered as a basis for discussion and is not binding on the contributing individual(s) or organization(s). The material in this document is subject to change in form and content after further study. The contributor(s) reserve(s) the right to add, amend or withdraw material contained herein. Release: The contributor acknowledges and accepts that this contribution becomes the property of IEEE and may be made publicly available by P802.15. Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Spreading sequences:Desirable properties**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Five KEY properties**• Sequence Length • Pulse Repetition Frequency • Autocorrelation properties • Periodic autocorrelation (Channel sounding) • Aperiodic autocorrelation (Data mode) • Spectral peak to average ratio (SPAR) • FCC requirements • Temporal peak to average ratio (TPAR) • Power supply requirements Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Periodic Autocorrelation (1)**• For channel sounding, a repeated sequence is appropriate. • Periodic autocorrelation function is the important property for a channel sounding sequence • Ipatov ternary sequences have “perfect” periodic autocorrelation i.e. all side lobes are zero • PBTS codes (from WBA/I2R) also have perfect” periodic autocorrelation • m−sequences have “ideal” periodic autocorrelation, i.e. their autocorrelation function is N (the sequence length) at one sample period and −1 everywhere else. Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Periodic Autocorrelation (2)**• This means that the output of a correlator operating on repeated Ipatov Transmitted sequences is EXACTLY, the channel impulse repeated, plus noise. • The output of a correlator operating on a repeated m−sequence is CLOSE TO the channel impulse response + noise. Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Example Correlator Outputs**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Aperiodic Autocorrelation**• For transmitting data, aperiodic autocorrelation function (AACF) is appropriate. • Previous and next sequences may not be the same. • Good AACF means low ISI • Golay Merit Factor (GMF) is a common measure of goodness of AACF. (Golay 1977) Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Golay Merit Factor**• GMF is defined as where ac is the aperiodic auto correlation function of a length n sequence • The average GMF of binary sequences is 1.0 • Best known GMF for binary sequences is 14.08 for the Barker 13 sequence, next is 12.1 for the Barker 11 sequence. • The mean Golay merit factor of the length 32 Walsh-Hadamard matrix is 0.194. • GMF greater than 6 is rare Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Autocorrelation: High GMF**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Autocorrelation: Low GMF**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Matched Filter Output – High GMF**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Matched Filter Output – Low GMF**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Spectral Peak to Average ratio (SPAR)**• In absence of ITU recommendations, use the FCC requirements. • Spectrum measured in 1MHz frequency bins for 1ms intervals. • Need Low SPAR. • SPAR in dBs converts to power backoff required. Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Temporal Peak to Average Ratio**• Need low TPAR, otherwise need high voltage power supply. • Best GMF (Infinite) is a single impulse. • Impulse has 0dB SPAR • TPAR of Impulse is worst • Need to balance sequence length and PRF to get a good SPAR and a good TPAR. Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Example sequences**• One of the Ipatov length 57 sequences: −0+0−−0−−−+−+−+++++−−+++−++0++−0++−+−++−+−−0−+++−00−−++++ • GMF is 3.75 • A Length 63 m sequence: −−−−−−+−+−+−−++−−+−−−+−−+−++−++−−−+++−+−−−−++−+−+++−−++++−+++++ • GMF is 3.52 • Both of these sequences, if transmitted repeatedly back to back, have a flat spectrum • Ipatov sequences are available at the following lengths: 7,13,21,31,57,73,91,127,133,183,273,307,381,512,553,651,757,871,993,1057,1407,1723 Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Sequence length and PRF**• If sequence is repeated, spectral lines spaced at the 1/sequence length apart. • Want these to be < ~ 2MHz apart for FCC compliance and low SPAR • Needs to be longer than Channel Impulse Response • e.g. CM8 has significant energy to ~850ns. • For a 1000ns duration sequence, a length 553 sequence requires ~10 times lower TPAR than length 57, but ~10 times larger PRF. Mc Laughlin, Decawave**TG4a CM8 Magnitudes**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**TG4a CM6 Magnitudes**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Basic Difference sets for length 31 codes**• Few zeros • Parameters L=31,k=6, λ=1 • Difference set =[1 5 11 24 25 27 ]; • Balanced zeros • Parameters L=31,k=15, λ=7 • Difference set =[1 2 3 4 6 8 12 15 16 17 23 24 27 29 30 ]; Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Auto correlation. Fewest zeros ipatov sequence**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Auto correlation. Balanced zero ipatov sequence**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Autocorrelation of magnitude. Balanced zero codes**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Autocorrelation of magnitude. Fewest zero codes**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Cross correlation of fewest zeros ipatov with modified**magnitude sequence Cross correlation of 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 with -4 1 1 -4 1 1 1 1 1 1 -4 -4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -4 1 1 1 -4 1 i.e. 0 replaced by -4 Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Cross correlation of balanced zeros ipatov with modified**magnitude sequence Cross correlation of 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 with -1 -1 1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 -1 1 -1 -1 -1 1 -1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 -1 -1 i.e. 0 replaced by -1 Mc Laughlin, Decawave**12 Length 31 codesBalanced Ipatov Sequences (BITS)***6 Combination of 6 codes with best cross correlation **3 Combination of 3 codes with best cross correlation Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Best 20 of Length 31 Fewest zero codes**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**SPAR, L=31 balanced codes**Lower is better Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Autocorrelation: Golay Merit FactorL=31 balanced codes**Higher is better Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Cross Correlation**Coherent cross-correlation matrix 16 6 4 4 6 4 6 16 6 6 6 4 4 6 16 6 4 4 4 6 6 16 6 6 6 6 4 6 16 6 4 4 4 6 6 16 Non-coherent cross-correlation matrix 16 4 4 4 6 4 4 16 6 4 4 4 4 6 16 4 4 4 4 4 4 16 4 6 6 4 4 4 16 4 4 4 4 6 4 16 Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Preamble PSD for BITSat 30.875MHz PRF**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Preamble Spectrum Analyzer OutputBITS: 30.875MHz PRF**Mc Laughlin, Decawave**SPAR vs Data mode PSDBITS:- Codeword No. 10**Codeword No. 10 : SPAR = 3.26dB Mc Laughlin, Decawave**SPAR vs Data mode SpectrumBITS:- Codeword No. 10**Codeword No. 10 : SPAR = 3.26dB Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Aperiodic PSD – 30.85MHz PRF**Codeword No. 10 : SPAR = 3.26dB Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Aperiodic PSD – 15.4MHz PRF**Codeword No. 10 : SPAR = 3.26dB Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Using one of these codes for data**bi-1 = 0, bi = 0 bi-1 = 0, bi = 1 bi-1 = 1, bi = 0 bi-1 = 1, bi = 1 Mc Laughlin, Decawave**Conclusion**• 2 Recommendations • Use periodic BITS codes at 30.875 MHz PRF for Preamble • Use BPSK BITS codes at variable PRF for Data Transmission Mc Laughlin, Decawave**References**• [Ipatov] V. P. Ipatov,“Ternary sequences with ideal autocorrelation properties”Radio Eng. Electron. Phys., vol. 24, pp. 75−79, Oct. 1979. • [Høholdt et al] Tom Høholdt and Jørn Justesen, “Ternary sequences with Perfect Periodic Autocorrelation”, IEEE Transactions on information theory. Mc Laughlin, Decawave