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Cooking Methods Review

Cooking Methods Review

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Cooking Methods Review

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  1. Cooking Methods Review Dry Heat Methods

  2. Learning Targets: • Understand how dry heat affects food • Identify a variety of dry heat methods

  3. Performance Target • Use a variety of dry heat methods • Determine doneness in foods prepared by dry heat methods.

  4. Standards • PLC 5.0 Food Safety • PLC 6.0 Kitchen Safety • ACF 5 Food Preparation • Demonstrate how to read and follow a standard recipe • Demonstrate proper scaling and measurement techniques • Demonstrate a variety of cooking techniques

  5. Methods of Heat Transfer • Any cooking method changes: • The way a food looks • The way a food tastes • Nutritive value • In dry heat, heat is transferred by: • Radiant heat (rays coming from glowing/red hot heat source such as burning coals, flames or a hot electric element) – think baking/rotisserie • Metal that conducts heat from a burner to the food – griddle • By oil that is heated when a pan transfers heat from the burner to the oil

  6. Changes to food • Visually: • Heat source causes the outside of food to dry as it cooks • Outside color changes: foods prepared by dry heat are golden or deep brown • Foods that contain sugars turn brown when they get hot enough (carmelization) • Also protein rich foods also brown when heated • Texturally: • Outer layer of food stiffens, sometimes see distinct crust • Eggs, meat, fish, poultry all become firm • Other foods become softer - onions

  7. Maintaining Moisture • Dust food with flour • Grilled/broiled Meat/veg – soaked in oil, marinade, herbs/spices • Coat in batter/breading before frying • BEST WAY -don’t overcook

  8. Dry heat methods • Eight basic methods: • Grilling and broiling • Roasting and baking • Sauteing and stir-frying • Pan frying and deep frying

  9. Grilling and Broiling • Food placed on rack for cooking. • Radiant heat source is located below the rack holding the food

  10. Grilling and Broiling • Griddle sometimes used to prepared grilled foods • Uses a solid, flat metal plate above the heat source

  11. Broiling • Similar to grilling, except the heat source is located ABOVE the food

  12. Roasting and Baking • Dry heat techniques where food is cooked by hot air trapped inside an oven • No significant difference between roasting and baking • Difference is between SIZE of food • ROAST – indicates whole item or large piece of food • BAKE – indicates smaller pieces of a larger food

  13. Roasting v. Baking Roast Bake

  14. Sauteing • Saute – cooking tech. that cooks food quickly, often uncovered, in a very small amount of fat in a pan over high heat • Foods suitable for sauteing – tender and thin enough to cook in a short time • Food often coated with flour before sauteing • Fat keeps food from sticking to pan

  15. Saute • How to Saute: • Let pan heat up first • Once hot, add oil • When you add food to the pan, the pan cools off. More food = longer time to get hot again (recovery time) • Success of a saute = short recovery time • Turn sauteed food halfway through cooking • Resists temptation to move food around unless cooking too quickly or starting to get too dark

  16. Saute variations • Stir Frying • Made in wok (pan w/ round bottom and sloping sides) • Foods cut into small strips to cook quickly • CONSTANTLY STIR FOOD as it cooks • Searing • Cook food in small amt of fat just long enough to color the outside of food • Pan broiling • Like sauteing, except you use NO fat (cause foods already have high fat content – think bacon) • AKA dry sauteing • Sweating/smothering • Lower heat, food cooked uncovered in small amt of fat • Food softens, releasing moisture, not allowed to brown

  17. Variations example Stir Fry Sear Sweat

  18. Pan Fry v. Deep Fry • Pan fry • Food cooked in hot oil in a pan • Oil should come halfway up the sides of the food • Turn foods only once

  19. Pan Fry Do’s • DO - Heat oil • How do you know? • NEVER PUT WATER IN OIL!!!! • Use a thermometer • Stick a wooden spoon into oil. When you see bubbles form and rise to top – its hot enough • Put a little flour in oil – if it bubbles/sizzles, its hot enough • Do lower rather than drop food into oil • Do watch you oil – if you see smoke rising, lower your temp. Its an indication you’ve reached the “smoke point” – where oil quality begins to degrade

  20. Don’t • Don’t add food before it’s hot, food will absorb oil = greasy food • Don’t crowd the pan – this reduces the temperature of the oil and increases recovery time

  21. Pan Fried Foods usually coated • Seasoned Flour • Simply flour seasoned with salt and pepper • Standard Breading • Flour -> Egg -> Breading – Think chicken katsu • Batter • Blend of flour and liquid

  22. Determine Doneness • How to tell if food is done? • Visually – outside is golden brown • Chicken/Pork – no blood/red juices, no red flesh • Texture – firm or crispy depending on food • Things to consider: • Carryover cooking – foods continue to cook even after coming out of heat • Should take foods out before totally done • Resting Food – • Allows food to carry over cook and reach its proper doneness • Food is moister, juices redistribute within food • Allows time for proper plating and presentation

  23. Circle Map for thinking • A great way to visually see your information! • In the center – write “Dry Cooking Methods” • You have 8 Dry Cooking Methods and 8 outer sections • Define each method and create an illustration to remind you of the method