General Terms • Conduction: Method of transferring heat by direct contact. • Convection: The movement of molecules through air or liquid. • Radiation: Heat is transferred as waves of energy. • Moist-heat cooking: Food is cooked in hot liquid, steam, or a combination of the two. • Dry-heat cooking: Cooking food uncovered w/out added liquid or fat.
Moist-Heat Cooking-In Water • Boiling: A liquid has reached its highest temperature. • Water boils at 212˚ F • Nutrients are lost, so serve w/ liquid. • Corn, pasta, eggs, etc. • Simmering: To cook food in a liquid at temperatures just below boiling. • Water simmers between 185 ˚-210 ˚F • Nutrients are lost, so serve w/ liquid. • Rice, meat, etc.
Poaching: Whole or large pieces of food are cooked in a small amount of liquid at temperatures just below simmering. • Helps retain shape and tenderness of delicate foods • Fish, fruit, eggs, etc. • Steaming: Cooking food over (not in) boiling water. • Keep flavor and appearance in tact. • Vegetables, meat, etc.
Pressure-cooking: Food is placed in a high-pressure atmosphere by trapping steam in an airtight chamber. • Foods cook very fast due to high temps. • Potatoes, less tender cuts of meat, etc. • Braising: Large pieces of food is placed in a small amount of liquid in a pan with a tight-fitting lid. • Oven temps. 325˚F • Less tender cuts of meat, vegetables, etc.
Stewing: Small pieces of food are completely covered with a liquid and simmer slowly in a covered pan. • Less tender cuts of meat
Moist-Heat Cooking-in Fat • Frying/sauteing: Cooking food in a small amount of hot fat in a pan over moderate heat. • Sauteing means to “jump” • Tender cuts of meat, vegetables, etc. • Pan-broiling: Food cooks in an uncovered pan in its own natural fat, with no fat added. • Hamburger, steak, etc.
Deep-fat frying: Food is cooked by immersing into hot fat. • Fat should be at 350˚F • Seafood, vegetables, bread, etc. • Stir-frying: Small pieces of food are stirred constantly and cooked quickly over high heat in a small amount of oil until just tender. • Chicken, vegetables, etc.
Dry-Heat Cooking • Dry-heat cooking: Cooking food uncovered without added liquid or fat. • Roasting/Baking: Cooking foods surrounded by heat in an oven. • Meat, cake, potatoes, etc.
Broiling: Cooking food under direct heat. • Tender meat, vegetables, etc. • Grilling: Food is placed on a grate over an open flame, and heat radiates upward. • Meat, vegetables, etc.
Microwave Cooking • Microwaving: Foods cook from energy in the form of electrical waves. • Cooks quickly, with little or no added water-preserves nutrients