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Dept. of nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University Jong Kyung KIM PowerPoint Presentation
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Dept. of nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University Jong Kyung KIM

Dept. of nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University Jong Kyung KIM

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Dept. of nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University Jong Kyung KIM

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  1. November 15, 2010 Current Status on the Construction of New Reactor in Korea : Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes Dept. of nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University Jong Kyung KIM

  2. Current Status of the World

  3. Current Status of World-wide Reactors • Many research reactors were built in the 1960s and 1970s and the peak number operating was • in 1975, with 373 in 55 countries. • After 1975, no. of research reactors were significantly reduced by some problems • (i.e., lifetime and economic efficiency of research reactors) in industrialized countries. • Whereas, developing countries continuingly built research reactors from 1950s to present. • World Nuclear Growth: No. of Research Reactors and Their Thermal Power • No. of Research reactors in Industrialized and Developing Countries * Source : IAEA Research Reactor Data Base(RRDB), 02.2010

  4. Current Status of World-wide Reactors • Most research reactors in the world (~40%) are concentrated in US and Russia. • The power of operable research reactors mainly lower than 100 kW (~50%). • - Most of research reactors are constructed for the research & test of power generation reactors. • 80% research reactors in north and central America are suspended in operation. • Operational Research Reactors in IAEA Member States • Power Distribution of Operable Research Reactor * Source : IAEA Research Reactor Data Base(RRDB), 02.2010

  5. Current Status of World-wide Reactors • Age Distribution of Research Reactors • - Reactors constructed more than 40 years ago: 54.6% • - Reactors constructed less than 40 years ago: 45.3% • Temporary Shutdown Research Reactors - Countries: 11(Argentina, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, Congo, Greece, Japan, • The Netherlands, Russian Federation, and United Kingdoms) • - No. of Research Reactors: 12 • Temporary Shutdown Research Reactors • Age Distribution of Research Reactors 299 189 100 88 78 75 54 38 34 29 14 6 4 4 * Source : IAEA Research Reactor Data Base(RRDB), 02.2010

  6. The Specification of Research Reactors Producing Mo-99

  7. Current Status of Research Reactors Producing Mo-99 • 54 research reactors in the world are producing the radioisotopes. • - RI Suppliers (Large-scale): Canada, The Netherlands, Belgium, France, and South Africa • - RI Market Share of Major Research Reactors: 92% • - Temporary Shutdown Research Reactors: NRU and HFR • Status of Major Research Reactors for the Mo-99 production(*Source: European Commission, SANCO/C/3HW, 2009) OSI RIS Research Reactor, France 53 49 49 46 45 HFR Research Reactor, The Netherlands Year NRU Research Reactor, Canada BR-2 Research Reactor, Belgium SAFARI Research Reactor, South Africa • Age Distribution of Major Research Reactor • World Share of Mo-99 Radioisotope

  8. Expected Use of the Various RI in the Future • A distinct increase is expected in the use of Lu-177 and Y-90 and this trend will • continue until far into the future. • The use of Ho-166 and Sm-153 will be also increased, although not before 2010. • The current use of Iodine and Iridium is not expected to increase a great deal. • Requirements for reactor radioisotopes such as Sm-153, Y-90, Er-169 and possibly • Re-186, continue to grow, following the general trend towards widespread utilization • for therapy. • Expert Expectations for the Application of Therapy with Radioisotopes • Estimated Number of Therapy with Tc-99m/Mo-99 Isotope O: Unchanged, +: Increase • * Source : European Commission, SANCO/C/3HW, 2009

  9. Current Status of KOREA

  10. Current Status of Domestic RI Market • RI Export (Unit: TBq) • Total Demand of Radioisotopes in 2007 : 29,813 TBq (Co-60 included) • Major Radioisotopes Consumed in Korea : H-3, Mo-99, I-131, Co-60 and Ir-192 • RI Import (Unit: TBq) • RI Supply in Korea (Unit: TBq) * Source: Korea Radioisotope Association

  11. Trends of Radioisotope-use in Korea • Tc-99m among various Radioisotopes has the biggest market share. • Tc-99m is mainly used for the MDP (Bone Imaging). • The frequency of medical RI use has been continually increased from 2000 • to present. • Details of Nuclear Imaging Diagnostic • Details of Clinical RI Use (Unit: # of Uses) (Unit: # of Uses) * Source: Korean Society of Nuclear Medicine

  12. Current Status of Domestic Tc-99m Supply • Annual Trend for Tc-99m Supply • High Import Dependence of Tc-99m Supply • Fabrication Only in Domestic Production • Occurrence of Tc-99m Supply Shortage in 2008 2008 2007 2006 428 TBq 373 TBq 368 TBq About 10% Increase per Year • Annual Trend for Tc-99m Supply (Unit: TBq) * The domestic products are manufactured with the Mo-99 imported from South Africa ** Source: Korea Radioisotope Association

  13. Mo-99 Import Market in Korea • Tc-99m Market Share of Major Countries (2007) * Source: Korea Radioisotope Association $ 2.6 Million Market (2007) $ 600 / Ci $ 5 Million Present

  14. Mo-99 Supply Chain in Domestic Market Canada NRU Bruce B Netherlands HFR Russian Federation SM MIR-M1 WWR-M Belgium BR-2 USA MURR HFIR South Africa Safari-1 Argentina Atucha 1 Embalse 1 France OSIRIS • Australia • HIFAR • OPAL Canada MDS Nordion Japan Fujifilm Belgium IRE USA Tyco Healthcare / Mallinekrodt GE Healthcare Limited South Africa NECSA/NPT England/Russian Fed. REVISS Amersham Australia ANSTO Korea RI Market

  15. Radioisotope Production Facility (HANARO)

  16. Radioisotope Production at HANARO • Ir-192, I-131, and Ho-166have been produced and supplied on a large scale. • Production technologies for 10 kinds of radioisotopes were developed and integrated • into HANARO. • This research reactor is limited to install the additional production facilities • Radioisotope Supply and Production by HANARO Reactor (2008) * Source: Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

  17. Previous Shortages in RI Supply

  18. Mo-99/Tc-99m Supply Shortages • The Recent Shutdowns of Major Mo-99 Production Reactors (HFR [Netherlands], BR-2 [Belgium], and NRU [Canada] Reactor Shutdowns in August 2008) - Global Medical Isotopes Crisis Highlights Alarming Lack of RI Production Facilities 5 Disruption between 1995-2007 5 Disruptions since January 2007 Jun 1997 NRU Shutdown (Strike) Nov 2005 – Apr 2006 Covidien Tc-99 Production Shutdown (Generator Recall) Aug – Nov 2008 IRE Bulk Mo-99 Processing Shutdown (Unexpected Emission) Nov – Dec 2007 & May 2009 – Present NRU Shutdowns Jan 2007 – Oct 2008 HIFAR Shutdown (OPAL Production Delayed) 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Mar – Apr 2007 Convidien Tc-99 Production shutdown (generator recall) 1995 Strike of Canadian Air-flight May 2006 FRJ-2 Shutdown (permanent) Aug 2008 – Feb 2009 HFR Shutdown (Gas Leak) Feb – Mar 2002 HFRShutdown (Weld Defect)

  19. Mo-99/Tc-99m Supply Shortages • Global Supply Shortage of Mo-99 • - Shutdown of NRU reactor at 2008.12.05 due to the leakage of H-3 • - Canada getting out of RI business in 2016 • News for Supply Shortage of RI medicine • News for Canada getting out of business

  20. Analysis of Previous Shortages • The causes for shortages can have various origins. • They are independent from the radioisotope production and supply chain • (e.g., due to geographical, geo-political or economic reasons). • Most situations of shortages are unpredictable. • They seem to become more frequent and more severe; this is not completely • surprising considering the age of concerned nuclear reactors.

  21. New Radioisotope Supply Options Candidates for Potential Small Increased Capacity to Serve Regional Markets Potential Availability : After 2015 Candidates for Significant Global Capacity Increase Potential Availability : 2010-2016 Candidates for Replacement Capacity Potential Availability : After 2015 * Currently conceptual • Additional possible production from non-reactor sources (accelerators) and from small research reactors : Will Take Time to Develop : Not Effective for Commercial Production

  22. Necessity of New Reactor Construction World Shortage of Tc-99m Supply Current Issues World-wide Problems Raised on Security of Radioisotope Supply in Korea • Shortage of Tc-99m Supply in Korea • Frequent Shutdown of Major Mo-99 Production Reactors • Occurrence of Diagnostic Failure Due to the Shortage of Tc-99m • News about “NRU Reactor • Lockdown in 2016” • News of “Frequent Shutdown of Major RI Production Reactors” • ►Arising Global Shortage of • Mo-99 Supply • High Dependency of Radioisotope Production from Foreign Countries • No Solution on Managing the Balance of Supply and Demand as well as the Raised Radioisotope Price Construction of a New Reactor is an Unique Alternative Solution

  23. Construction Plan

  24. New Research Reactor Overview • Reactor Outline • Construction Purpose • - Medical and Industrial Radioisotope Production • - Neutron Irradiation Service • Basic Reactor Characteristics - Land Scale of Research Reactor: 130,000 m2(Including EAB) • - Reactor Power: 20 MWth(Thermal Flux: Over 3ⅹ1014 n/cm2 • s ) • - Design Lifetime: > 50 year • - Nuclear Fuel: 20% Low Enriched Uranium • - Fission Mo Target: Thin Uranium Foil Using LEU • Location of Construction Site • of New Research Reactor • Facilities • Research Reactor • Isotope Production Facilities • Fission Mo Production Facilities • Neutron Irradiation Facility • Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Gijang, Busan

  25. Specifications of New Research Reactor (Currently Planned)

  26. Operating System of New Research Reactor Government and Regulation Agencies ▪ Budget & Permission KAERI ▪ Management Academic& Research Institute ▪Design Advise KAERI Engineering Industries Construction Industries Heavy Industries • Design of Nuclear Fuel • Design of Reactor and Primary System • Test Operation • Construction • Purchase of Sub-machinery • Design and Manufacture of Reactor Vessel • Manufactures of Sub-machinery • Design of Sub-system • Overall Design of Reactor Building Operating Method Operating Manpower • Liable Operation by Some Specialists • (Reactor, Irradiation Facility…) • RI Production Facilities Operated by • Private Enterprises • Composition of Experienced and • Beginning Workers • Training Course for 1 Year

  27. Economic Efficiency of New Reactor • Estimated Output of Major Radioisotopes 1) Domestic Price at Present, Exchange Rate: 1.2 (Thousand Won/$) 2) Considering Domestic Demand • Assumption for Evaluating Economic Efficiency • Main Products from New Research Reactor: RI and Neutron Irradiation Service (NTD) • Lifetime of Research Reactor: 50 Year • 2009 Constant Price

  28. Requirements for the Construction of New Research Reactor • KAERI needs a experience in development of several key technologies. • 1. Design and Manufacturing Technology of Planar Type Nuclear Fuel. • 2. Analysis Data for Thermal Hydraulic Behavior. • 3. New Type of CRDM. • Planar Type Nuclear Fuel • New CRDM Layout

  29. Requirements for the Construction of New Research Reactor • Fission Mo-99 Production by using LEUTarget • Separation & Collection Efficiency of Useful • RIs in Radioactive Wastes • Production and Safety Evaluation of Medical RI • Utilization of Neutron Irradiation • New Research Reactor • RI Production Facilities • Utilization of Neutron Irradiation • Private Companies for Using New Reactor • Transparent Project Progress • Emphasis on Positive Effect to the Regional • Economy

  30. Conclusions

  31. SUMMARY • Local government (Pusan) will provide the construction site of research reactor • without cost (~ 130,000 m2). • New research reactor and additional facilities (RI production and NTD) will be • constructed from 2011 to 2015, through the ~ $220+α million dollars Investment. • The Preliminary Feasibility Analysis for new research reactor will be carried out by • the end of 2010. • Will provide a chance to solve future RI supply shortages in domestic and global • market.

  32. Thank you !