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PAST SIMPLE, PAST CONTINUOUS, PAST PERFECT. GRAMMAR. PAST SIMPLE (Form). Affirmative : I/you/he/she/it/we/they played Negative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they didn’t play Question: Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they play? For regular verbs we add the ending –ED
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PAST SIMPLE (Form) • Affirmative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they played • Negative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they didn’t play • Question: Did I/you/he/she/it/we/they play? • For regular verbs we add the ending –ED • For irregular verbs, we take the past form (2nd column)
PAST SIMPLE (Use) • Completed actions: I saw the new James Bond film yesterday. • Repeated actions in the past: I went to the theatre four times last month. • General truths about the past: Fifty years ago, people didn’t spend as much on entertainment as they do today.
PAST SIMPLE (Helpful hints) • The past simple is often used with the following words and phrases: • YESTERDAY • LAST WEEK/SUMMER/YEAR/ etc. • IN JANUARY/2001/ etc. • AN HOUR/A WEEK/A YEAR AGO
PAST CONTINUOUS (Form) • Affirmative: I/he/she/it was playing you/we/they were playing • Negative: I/he/she/it wasn’t playing you/we/they weren’t playing • Question: Was I/he/she/it playing? Were you/we/they playing?
PAST CONTINUOUS (Use) • Actions in progress happening at a specific time in the past:At nine o’clock last night, I was watching TV. • A past action in progress interrupted by another action: I was driving along the road when it started snowing. • Background information in a story:It was raining so Wendy decided to go to the cinema.
PAST CONTINUOUS (Helpful hints) • The Past Continuous is often used with the following words and phrases: • AT THAT MOMENT • AT ONE/TWO/etc O’CLOCK • WHILE
Past Perfect (Form) HAD + PAST PARTICIPLE • Affirmative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they had written… • Negative: I/you/he/she/it/we/they hadn’t written… • Question: Had I/you/he/she/it/we/they written…? • For regular verbs we add the ending –ED • For irregular verbs, we take the past participle form (3rd column)
Past Perfect (Use) • Actions and states which happened earlier than anotheraction or state in the past: • I’d finished my homework a few minutes before the lesson started. • Mrs Cross had been a teacher for twenty years before she became a headmaster.
Past Perfect (Useful hints) • The past perfect is often used with the following words and phrases: • BY: I’d finished my homework by eight o’clock. • BY THE TIME: By the time I got to class, the lesson had started. • BEFORE: The teacher had checked the answers before the lesson. • AFTER: I left after I’d finished the test. • JUST: Simon had just finished the test when the bell rang. • ALREADY: The concert had already started when we arrived.
Whether we use the past simple or the past perfect can change the meaning of a sentence: • The lesson started when I arrived. (= I arrived and then the lesson started) • The lesson had started when I arrived. (= The lesson started and then I arrived)