From EFL to ESOL Dr. Desmond Thomas, International Academy, University of Essex
Who speaks English? • Kirkpatrick: ENL, ESL, EFL speakers • ENL: UK and ‘settlement colonies’ of the UK • ESL: ‘Trade/exploitation colonies’ of the UK • EFL: The rest of the world • Graddol: L1, L2, EFL speakers • Kachru: Inner Circle, Outer Circle and Expanding Circle speakers • Phillipson/Holliday: Core vs Periphery
Who are the native speakers? • UK citizens? • US citizens? • New Zealand citizens? • South African citizens? • Malaysian citizens? • Dutch/Swedish/Norwegian citizens?
How do we determine NS? • By place of birth? • Parent’s 1st language? • Our own 1st language? • The language in which we are educated? • The language which we normally speak at home?
What types of English do people speak? • British /American/Nigerian English? • EFL or ESL or ENL? • EIL (English as an International language), ‘World/Global’ English(es)? • ELF (English as a Lingua Franca)? • Standard English?
English as a Lingua Franca • “The common language of choice among speakers who come from different linguacultural backgrounds. In practice this often means English being used among non-native English speakers from the Expanding Circle” (Jenkins, J. 2009)
Why do people learn English? Main international language of: • books, newspapers, airports and air-traffic control, international business and academic conferences, science, technology, diplomacy, sport, pop music, and advertising (Source: The British Council)
A few facts about English • Over two-thirds of the world's scientists read in English. • Three quarters of the world's mail is written in English. • Eighty per cent of the world's electronically stored information is in English.
The domination of English • “The present distribution throughout the world of the major international languages- Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish is evidence of conquest and occupation, followed by adoption of the invader’s language because of the benefits that accrue to speakers of the language when the dominant language has been imposed” (Phillipson 1992)
Linguistic Imperialism Thesis • The spread of English is not just accidental but also deliberate to gain political and cultural world dominance • Linguistic imperialism is therefore a modern form of colonization • It is accompanied by cultural and educational imperialism • Implications for ELT are many
Why do people learn English? • Communication with native speakers • Work • Career prospects • Academic study • Travel • Access to information • Access to literature and culture • Prestige?
ESL learner characteristics • Learners live in an English-speaking environment • Learners can practise outside class (including other subject classes) • Learners need ‘survival English’ • Motivation to succeed usually high • Example group: ECDIS students
EFL learner characteristics • Learners live in their native language countries • Learners have limited practice opportunities outside English classes • Learners do not necessarily need ‘survival English’ • Motivation levels vary greatly
ESL vs EFL teaching • The ‘twin traditions’ of English Language Teaching • TESOL/ESOL includes both • In subsequent lectures and seminars we will look at similarities, differences and implications of situating oneself in either area
Further reading: general • Crystal 2003, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge • Graddol, D. 1999, The Future Of English, British Council • Jenkins, J. 2003, World Englishes, Routledge • Khachru, B. 1985, Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: the English language in the Outer Circle. In Quirk, R. & H.Widdowson (eds.) English in the World: Teaching and Learning the Language and Literatures, Cambridge
Further reading: ‘imperialism’ • Holliday, A. 1994, Appropriate Methodology and Social Context, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press • Pennycook, A. 1994, The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language, London: Longman • Phillipson, R. 1992, Linguistic Imperialism, Oxford: Oxford University Press