GMO’s Science Scientist: Austin Jacobson
WARNING: QUIZ AT THE END!!!! All pictures are from Google images.
The Main Components The gene you want to transfer(trans-gene). The organism you want to put it into (target species). A vector to carry the gene into the target species.
The Process The gene to be transferred(trans-gene) is cut and isolated from the original organism. Then the restriction enzyme recognize specific sequences in the DNA and cut it at those places. The trans-gene is then inserted into the vector. The vector is capable of getting inside the cells of the target species. To do this a scientist removes the portions of the virus’ genome that cause harm, but leave the genes for getting into the host cells.
THE PROCESS CONTINUED Then the target gene is inserted into the host cells. Then the host cells containing the target gene are inserted into the host’s genome. From here on out every time the genome is replicated the transgene will be found in the DNA of the new cells.
Animals • The most commonly genetically modified animal is the mouse. • Some animals have been genetically modified with the aim to produce human proteins, such as medicines. • Fish are being genetically modified to glow in the dark and are being sold as pets.
Animals • Cows are being modified to produce milk with higher protein levels to increase cheese production. • Coho Salmon(fertilized fish eggs) is being tested with genes for faster maturation but it is not yet approved by the FDA.
This is agenetically modified fish, it was given the gene that enables it to glow in the dark.
Plants • Most genetically modified crops are made for protection against insect, disease, and weed killers. • In 1986, human growth hormone was the very first protein ever made pharmaceutically in plants. • In 1989, the first antibody was produced. • The tobacco plant was used in both researches and since then it is the most utilized plant species for foreign gene testing.
Plants Plants approved for genetic modifications: • Soybeans are approved for genes with herbicide tolerance. • Corn is approved for genes with insect resistance. • Canola is approved for genes with altered fatty acid composition. • Plums are approved for genes with virus protection.
PLANTS Plants in genetic modification testing: • Rice is being tested with genes for vitamin enrichment. • Tobacco is being tested with genes for vaccines. • Maize is being tested with genes for oral vaccines.
Sociologist By: Bethany Carns
Benefits • Crops • Enhanced taste and quality • Reduced maturation time • Increased nutrients, yields, and stress tolerance • Improved resistance to disease, pests, and herbicides • New products and growing techniques
Benefits (cont.) • Animals • Increased resistance, productivity, hardiness, and feed efficiency • Better yields of meat, eggs, and milk • Improved animal health and diagnostic methods • Society • Increased food security for growing populations
Benefits (cont.) • Environment • "Friendly" bio herbicides and bio insecticides • Conservation of soil, water, and energy • Bioprocessing for forestry products • Better natural waste management • More efficient processing
Controversies • Safety • Potential human health impacts, including allergens, transfer of antibiotic resistance markers, unknown effects • Potential environmental impacts, including: unintended transfer of transgenes through cross-pollination, unknown effects on other organisms (e.g., soil microbes), and loss of flora and fauna biodiversity
Controversies (cont.) • AccessandIntellectualProperty • Domination of world food production by a few companies • Increasing dependence on industrialized nations by developing countries • Bio piracy, or foreign exploitation of natural resources
Controversies (cont.) • Ethics • Violation of natural organisms' intrinsic values • Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species • Objections to consuming animal genes in plants and vice versa • Stress for animal • Labeling • Not mandatory in some countries (e.g., United States) • Mixing GM crops with non-GM products confounds labeling attempts • Society • New advances may be skewed to interests of rich countries
Since genetic engineering crops were first introduced for commercial production, the United States account for 63%, 105.7 million acres of land, of all GM crops planted globally.
Lawyer By: Bethany Carns
Laws in different States In Connecticut, GMO products MUST be labeled. In Missouri, a Federal Judge stated that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife shouldn't allow genetically modified crops on a national wildlife refuge. In Pennsylvania, Georgia, North Dakota, Iowa, Idaho, Indiana, Oklahoma, Arizona, and West Virginia , they have passed a law restricting the sale of Genetically Modified Seeds.
Laws in different Countries Ireland banned the growth of any genetically modified foods, also they have made available a GMO-free label that can be placed on animal products like meat, poultry, eggs and dairy, fish, and crustaceans, that are raised with feed free of GMOs.
Laws in different Countries (cont.) Though Japan imports a lot of food from countries still growing and exporting GMO foods, they are staunchly opposed to consuming GMOs. In a move that has as many implications for world trade as it does for agriculture, Egypt has banned the import and export of GMOs.
GMO’S Educator By: Lindsay Hullihen
What all items have scientist gmoed? Food Animals Medicine Crops
IT IS SAFE? Some people safe it is not safe, because people have access to these foods mostly in local super markets around the US. However, A lot of people are highly agreeing with genetically modifying medicines, in hopes for bright futures.
Do they affect the environment? Potentially has a chance of effecting the insects. Some plants are the homes of insects, but when they are GMO’s that type of insect can’t live in that environment. Potential generations of new and growing plants And the movement of genes to other plants.
Marketing Will GM foods hurt or help the market? Critics are saying that GM products are going to have a huge effect on the market. Most all of the GM foods are available in todays super markets. In other countries they have passed legislation in places focusing on the risks of GM foods.
Question 1 Food Animals Medicine Crops What are 4 types of GMO’s?
Question 2 Why is it ruining insects habitats? If that special type of insect is living in that area or on that crop, it can not be completely used to the crop and what is on it. Same with its offspring.
Question 3 China is allowing GMO items in and our of the country? True or False? False.
Question 4 What is the most common genetically modified animal? Mouse
Question 5 What percentage of GM crops planted globally account for? 63%
Question 6 Is GM food have labels on the package? HINT* FROM VIDEO Yes, but most people do not take the time out to read all of the labels.
Question 7 What type of fish is the FDA after? Salmon