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UNIT 4, Part 1 Loyalty and Betrayal PowerPoint Presentation
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UNIT 4, Part 1 Loyalty and Betrayal

UNIT 4, Part 1 Loyalty and Betrayal

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UNIT 4, Part 1 Loyalty and Betrayal

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  1. UNIT 4, Part 1 Loyalty and Betrayal Click the mouse button or press the space bar to continue

  2. Unit 4, Part 1 MAIN MENU Loyalty and Betrayal (pages 718–766) Ever Alluring Click a selection title to go to the corresponding selection menu.

  3. SELECTION MENU Selection Menu (pages 718–739) Before You Read Reading the Selection After You Read

  4. BEFORE YOU READ Meet Sophocles Click the picture to learn about the author.

  5. BEFORE YOU READ Connecting to the Play “Just do what you think is right.” “Act according to your conscience.” Advice like this is easy to give, but sometimes surprisingly difficult to carry out. Before you read Antigone, think about the following questions: • When is doing the right thing difficult? • When have you had a hard time deciding to do what was right?

  6. BEFORE YOU READ Building Background This play takes place in ancient Greece, in the city of Thebes, about thirty miles northwest of Athens. At the time, Thebes was one of the greatest cities of Greece. The Greeks of Sophocles’ day believed that people had to do certain things to please the gods.

  7. BEFORE YOU READ Building Background If they fulfilled their duties, the gods would bring them good fortune. However, if they did not, the gods would bring famine, epidemics, and natural disasters. If a corpse was not buried or cremated according to a strict ritual, its soul might not get to Hades, the world of the dead. Instead, the soul would be forced to wander the earth, bringing shame upon relatives and angering the gods.

  8. BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Loyalty and Betrayal Although we assume that loyalty is a good thing, loyalty to an unworthy cause may be even worse than betrayal. As you read Antigone, think about the complex relationship between loyalty and betrayal.

  9. BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Protagonist and Antagonist The conflict in a work of literature is a struggle between opposing forces. The protagonist is the central character and the one who the reader is generally meant to sympathize with. The antagonist is the person or force that opposes the protagonist.

  10. BEFORE YOU READ Setting Purposes for Reading Protagonist and Antagonist As you read the play, think about who the antagonist is, who the protagonist is, and what their conflict consists of.

  11. BEFORE YOU READ Interpreting Imagery Writers create a rich world for their readers by the use of imagery, the “word pictures” that appeal to the senses and bring the written word to life. As you read Antigone, identify images and think about what feelings or meanings they suggest to you.

  12. BEFORE YOU READ Interpreting Imagery Reading Tip: Taking Notes Using a table like the one below can help you interpret imagery.

  13. BEFORE YOU READ repulsen. an act of beating back or driving away, as with force (p. 721) A day of celebration followed the repulse of the invading army. famishedadj. intensely hungry; ravenous (p. 725) Exhausted and famished, the missing hikers finally struggled out of the wilderness. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

  14. BEFORE YOU READ comprehensiveadj. including nearly everything; large in scope; complete (p.728) A comprehensive review of our safety procedures revealed many areas that are in need of improvement. piousadj. devoutly religious (p. 729) The streets of the holy city were crowded with pious pilgrims. arrogance n. overbearing pride (p.738) Her confidence seemed like arrogance to the judge. Click a vocabulary term to listen to the definition.

  15. READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Keep the following questions in mind as you read. Which characters exhibit the truest form of loyalty? How many people are betrayed?

  16. READING THE SELECTION Answer:You should note that Antigone’s loyalty to her brother, and possibly Haimon’s loyalty to Antigone, were the most unwavering and, therefore, the purest. Many people are betrayed: Eteocles, by Polyneices; Polyneices, by Ismene; Antigone, by Creon; and Haimon, by his father.

  17. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist How much information is given about the characters at the beginning of the play? Can you use this list to predict who the protagonist and antagonist might be?

  18. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer:Sophocles specifies family relationships. Antigone, the title character, is listed first and is probably the protagonist. Creon is the king and the play takes place in his palace; he may be the antagonist.

  19. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 722.From what you have read so far, what conflict do you think may develop? Answer:Antigone loves her brother and is outraged to think of his body treated as food for birds. She will do whatever it takes to honor him.

  20. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read page 722 of your textbook.From the first page of the play, what have you learned about Antigone? Answer:She is strong, determined, decisive, and loyal to her family. She is active, not passive, in her reactions to events.

  21. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read page 722 of your textbook.How do these qualities help her as a protagonist? Answer:She will stand and fight for what she believes in against whatever or whoever threatens those beliefs.

  22. READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 723. What is Antigone suggesting about her sister here? Answer:She is suggesting that Ismene lacks loyalty to her family.

  23. READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 723. What do Antigone’s words and actions suggest about her views of loyalty and betrayal? What does she value? What does she reject?

  24. READING THE SELECTION Answer:Antigone implies that a “true sister” would bury their brother. She said that Creon is not strong enough to stand in her way. She also says that the crime is holy and that the laws of the gods have great meaning for her. Antigone values loyalty to her family and the gods above all. She is willing to reject the laws of man if they contradict these values.

  25. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 724.At this point, do you think Antigone is a protagonist or an antagonist? Explain. Answer:Most will think that Antigone is a protagonist because she displays bravery and loyalty. Some may say that by disobeying the law, she is acting like an antagonist.

  26. READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Look at the painting on page 724. What characters are portrayed here? How does this image differ from the story line that you have read so far?

  27. READING THE SELECTION Viewing the Art Answer:Antigone and Ismene are shown burying Polyneices. It shows Ismene accompanying her sister on her mission, though in the play she says that she won’t help her.

  28. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the first text highlighted in blue at the top of page 725.What is being described in this opening stanza? Answer:The description is of the morning sun shining on the enemy army.

  29. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the first text highlighted in blue on page 725. What other images describing light can you find in the Parados? Answer:Other images of light include “long blade of the sun,” “unlidded eye of golden day,” and “marching light.”

  30. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery “The famished spears” (line 15) is an example of personification because it likens the army’s weapons to a hungry person. Can you find another example of personification in the images listed above? Answer:The “unlidded/ Eye of golden day” is an example of personification.

  31. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the second text highlighted in blue on page 725.What does this image suggest about the two brothers? Answer:The image suggests the fighting that the brothers engaged in against one another during the war.

  32. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the text highlighted in blue on page 726.How does the imagery in the last stanza contrast with that of the previous stanzas? Answer:Images of peace and joy contrast with the violent images of war.

  33. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 727.From his speech so far, how would you characterize Creon?

  34. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer:Creon seems skilled in politics, strong-willed, religious, forthright, and patriotic. He seems to be a man of action. He also seems to be willing to fight anyone who opposes him.

  35. READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the first text highlighted in tan on page 727. What does loyalty mean to Creon? Answer:Loyalty means obeying the laws of the state.

  36. READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the second text highlighted in tan on page 727. Why does Creon believe that someone might be tempted to bury Polyneices? Answer:Creon is suggesting that despite the threat of the death penalty, someone could still be bribed to bury Polyneices.

  37. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 728.From what you have read so far, what stand does the sentry take in the conflict? Explain.

  38. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer:So far the sentry seems too weak, frightened, and confused to oppose anyone in the conflict. He is supposed to guard the body, and that is all he intended to do. He does feel an overwhelming duty to inform Creon of the news but does not want to take any part in placing the blame on anyone.

  39. READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 729. What makes the sentries so willing to betray each other?

  40. READING THE SELECTION Answer:The sentries know someone will be held accountable, since there is no clear evidence pointing to the culprit. They realize that they must point their fingers at anyone but themselves in order to be spared.

  41. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 729.What new role has the chorus began to assume in this conflict?

  42. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Answer:By suggesting that the gods are acting against Creon’s wishes, the choragos is suggesting that Creon might be wrong. Until now, he has been completely supportive of him. The choragos is beginning to sound like the conscience Creon lacks.

  43. READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 730. How does Creon ensure the loyalty of his people? Answer:Creon makes known that the man responsible will be punished severely. The people know that he is serious because he swears by God that this will occur.

  44. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 730.What insight about Creon does the sentry express here? Answer:Creon is so stubborn that he would rather kill the wrong person than admit to his errors.

  45. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 730. How has Creon treated the sentry in the lines leading up to this statement? Answer:Creon is rude, impatient, sarcastic, and accusatory.

  46. READING THE SELECTION Literary Element Protagonist and Antagonist Read the text highlighted in purple on page 730. How is this consistent with his role as antagonist? Answer:We can tell that he is quick to judge and will oppose anyone who defies his orders.

  47. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the text highlighted in blue on page 731.Why does the author refer to snow and rain in terms of “arrows” and “spears”? Answer:People protect themselves against snow and rain, as they would against weapons in battle.

  48. READING THE SELECTION Loyalty and Betrayal Read the text highlighted in tan on page 732. Why is Creon surprised that Antigone has been arrested? Answer:She is his niece, the very last person he would suspect of disobeying him.

  49. READING THE SELECTION Reading Strategy Interpreting Imagery Read the text highlighted in blue on page 733.What are some of the senses to which the images in the sentry’s speech appeal so far? Answer:Smell: “stinking” flesh; sight: “white round sun / Whirled”; sound and sight: “A storm of dust roared up”; touch: “stinging dark”