Psychology of Personality Smashna Olena
Personality The organized, developing, psychological system within the individual that represents the collective action of that individual’s major psychological subsystems.
Personality Psychology A scientific discipline that addresses the questions, “Who am I?” and “Who are others?” Personality psychology involves the study of a person’s mental system, with a focus on its largest, most important parts, how those parts are organized, and how they develop over time.
Systems Framework • An outline of the field of personality psychology that divides it into the study of: • the definition and location of personality, • personality parts, • personality organization, and • personality development.
What is temperament? Where do the characteristics come from? Temperament is behavioral style: the how of behavior rather than the what or why. Temperamental differences are present at birth; they influence how children behave toward individuals and objects in their environments and how they are affected by the environment.Temperament characteristics explain in part how individuals with many stresses may do well while some with little or no stress have difficulty.
How can professionals help parents deal with infants and children who have difficult temperament characteristics? • There are four basic ways to use temperament information to help children and their caregivers:a) Education about the existence of temperament differences;b) Individual behavioral assessment of a particular child, using a standardized questionnaire;c) Environmental intervention; systematically changing the environment to accommodate temperamental characteristics;d) Support groups to share experiences, discuss parenting techniques, and strategies for coping with a spirited youngster.
How do temperament characteristics affect parenting? • While some infants are mild and joyful others are irritable and cry persistently. Easy babies are so pleasant to care for they may receive (and give back) loads of affection and attention. The fussy, spirited child may scream and kick when given attention. As development unfolds, the fussy child may feel aversive to the caregiver and may receive less nurturance and affection. • This is a striking reality for some parents who have an easy baby followed by a feisty one (or vice-versa). Many parents feel guilty and wonder if they have done something to harm their child because the spirited ones are so much more difficult to raise.
Are spirited infants and children more likely to have emotional and behavioral problems? • Temperament may make certain children in certain environments more likely to have these problems. These 'risk factors' occur when there is a mismatch between the child's temperament and some demand in the environment-a poor fit between the child's temperament and the expectations for behavior in the situation. 'Easy' babies and children may have 'protective' factors where mismatches are rare and the rate of conflict is low.
The nine characteristics are (NYLS): • Activity level -the amount of physical motion exhibited during the day • Persistence -the extent of continuation of behavior with or without interruption • Distractibility -the ease of being interrupted by sound, light, etc unrelated behavior • Initial Reaction -response to novel situations, whether approaching or withdrawing • Adaptability -the ease of changing behavior in a socially desirable direction • Mood -the quality of emotional expression, positive or negative • Intensity - the amount of energy exhibited in emotional expression • Sensitivity -the degree to which the person reacts to light, sound, etc. • Regularity -the extent to which patterns of eating, sleeping, elimination, etc. are consistent or inconsistent from day to day.
In 1968 William B. Carey, developed the first practical measure of temperament, the Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Since then he and several associates have authored a series of temperament questionnaires assessing the nine NYLS temperament characteristics in infants as young as one month of age and in children through the end of the twelfth year. The Carey Temperament Scales. • Activity: 4-11 months – the infant moves about much during diapering and dressing • 3-7 years – the child speaks so quickly that it is sometimes difficult to understand him/her • Adaptability: 3-7 years – the child will avoid misbehavior if punished firmly once or twice
Choleric • One of the four ancient personality types; is quick to action, has a short temper, and is lean
Melancholic • One of four ancient personality types; is slow to move, self-preoccupied, unhappy and depressed
Sanguine • One of four ancient personality types; is cheerful, lively, and easy-going
Phlegmatic • One of four ancient personality types; has little energy, is prone to eating too much, and is somewhat indifferent in disposition.
Childhood Self • By age 2 • Use of “I,” “me,” “mine” • Physical characteristics • By age 8 • Social identity • Personality trait terms • Social comparison
Self-perception • Self-Esteem: Multidimensional • Harter’s research on self-perception • Children rated themselves on: • Scholastic competence (feeling smart, doing well in school) • Social competence (being popular, liked by others) • Behavioral competence (behaving appropriately, not getting in trouble) • Athletic competence (being good at sports) • Physical appearance (feeling good-looking)
SELF-ESTEEM EXAMPLES • I don’t feel anyone else is better than I • I am free of shame, blame, and guilt • I am a happy, carefree person • I have no need to prove I am as good as or better than others • I do not have a strong need for people to pay attention to me or like what I do • Losing does not upset me or make me feel ‘less than’ others
Influences on Self-Esteem • Competence differences • Social feedback (positive or negative) • Genetic • Parents (cross-cultural) • Warm and democratic • Enforce clearly stated rules
EXTRAVERSIONINTROVERSION • How we prefer to interact with the world and where we direct our energy
EXTRAVERSION Focus attention and energy on the world outside of themselves. • Talk/act first, think later • Think out loud - brainstorming • Communicate with enthusiasm • Respond quickly – enjoy a fast pace • Talk more than listen • Dominate conversations • Like being the center of attention
EXTRAVERSION • Know a lot of people • Have lots of friends • Are very approachable • Reveal personal information • Prefer to work with groups • Prefer breadth to depth Motto: READY, FIRE, AIM !!!!!
INTROVERSION Focus attention and energy on the world inside of themselves. • Think, then act • Rehearse things before speaking • Listen more than talk • Avoid being the center of attention • Are energized by spending time alone • Need to recharge after group interaction
INTROVERSION • Keep their enthusiasm to themselves • May be called shy, cool, aloof • Like to share with one person • Irritated by repetition • Prefer depth to breadth Motto: READY, AIM, FIRE… MAYBE !!!
Representation in the General Population There are 3 times as many extraverted preference people in the population as introverted preference people.
The kinds of information that we focus on or naturally notice SENSINGiNTUITION
SENSING Concentrate on what can be seen, heard, felt, smelled or tasted. • Focus on what is real and concrete • Take a practical approach • Value common sense • If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it • Like to hear things sequentially not randomly
SENSING • Are literal in the use of words • Prefer specific answers to specific questions • Rather do something than think about it • Learn from past experiences • Like to use and hone established skills • Like jobs that have tangible results • Live in the present
iNTUITION Naturally read between the lines and look for meaning in all things. • Trust inspiration and inference • Think about several things at once • Like figuring out how things work • Look for interrelatedness rather than face value • Value imagination and innovation • Find the future intriguing
iNTUITION • Love to fantasize • Are prone to puns and word games • Tend to give general answers • Get irritated when pushed for specifics • Present information through leaps, in a roundabout manner • Are oriented toward the future
Representation in the General Population 2/3 of the general population has a preference for sensing while 1/3 has a preference for iNtuition.
THINKINGFEELING • The way that we make decisions and come to conclusions
THINKING Prefer to make decisions using an impersonal approach. Prefer decisions that make sense logically. • Able to stay cool, calm, and objective when others are upset • Value fairness and truthfulness over popularity • More firm minded than gentle hearted • Naturally see flaws and tend to be critical
THINKING • Pride themselves on objectivity • Are sometimes seen as cold, insensitive, and uncaring • More important to be right than liked • Prefer things that are logical and scientific • Are motivated by a desire for achievement and accomplishment
FEELING Prefer to make decisions based on personal values. • Take the feelings of others into consideration when making decisions • Value empathy and harmony – see the exception to the rule • Do anything to accommodate • Naturally like to please others
FEELING • Prefer harmony over clarity • Accused of taking things too seriously • May be seen as overemotional, illogical and weak • Will jeopardize own position for others • Very thin skinned • Avoid conflict at all cost • Show appreciation easily • Are motivated by a desire to be appreciated
Representation in the General Population There are more thinking preference males in the general population and more feeling preference females.
JUDGINGPERCEIVING • The kind of lifestyle that we like to lead
JUDGING Tend to live in an orderly way and are happiest when their lives are structured and matters are settled. • Work ethic - work first, play later (if there is time) • A place for everything and everything in its place • Plan the work and work the plan • Don’t like surprises • Keep lists and use them • Thrive on order
JUDGING • Seek to regulate and control life • Set goals and work toward achieving them on time • Can become unraveled if things don’t fall into place • Are product oriented • Derive satisfaction from completing a project • See time as a finite resource and take deadlines seriously
PERCEIVING Like to live in a spontaneous way and are happiest when their lives are flexible. • Are happiest leaving their options open • Don’t like to plan, prefer to wait and see • “Play” ethic – enjoy now, finish the job later (if there is time) • Depend on last minute spurts of energy to meet deadlines • Like adapting to new situations
PERCEIVING • Value creativity, spontaneity, and responsiveness • Change goals as new information becomes available • Love to explore the unknown • Accused of being disorganized • Are process oriented (emphasis is on how the task is completed) • See time as a renewable resource and see deadlines as elastic
Representation in the General Population 60% of the general population has a preference for judging while 40% has a preference for perceiving.
Type and Careers • Certain personality types will be drawn to certain careers. • People within careers often cluster in similar personality types.
Myers Briggs type indicators facilitate our understanding of people with various personality ‘types.’ • Today, we’ll focus on how “The Four • Temperaments” arise from the combination of the four dimensions to yield 16 “type indicators.” MBTI - 4 Temperaments Guardians (sj) Rationals (nt) Idealists (nf) Artisans (sp)
Myers Briggs Dimensions of TemperamentYour preferences in action • Are you one of those organized workers who always gets your projects in before they're due? • Or do you put off getting the job done until the very last possible moment? • Is your boss someone who readily lets you know how you're doing? Or do they always leave you unsure of precisely where you stand? • Do you find that a few people on your staff are incredibly creative but can never seem to get to a meeting on time? • Do others require a specific agenda at the meeting in order to focus on the job at hand? • Recognize your own type and those of your coworkers using Myers Briggs Type Indicators
Myers Briggs Dimensions of TemperamentYour preferences in action • Extraversion / Introversion • Where do you get your energy - what “charges your batteries” - group think vs.. introspection, perhaps. • Sensing / Intuition • How do you gather information. Present / future, practical / imaginative, details / patterns, sequential / random • Thinking / Feeling • How do you make decisions ? • Thinking/feeling, laws/circumstances, justice/mercy • Judgment / Perception • How do you organize your environment • Planned / open ended, control / adapt, resolved / pending
Guardians (sj) • Administrators • Inspector (iStJ) • Supervisor (eStJ) • Conservators • Protector (iSfJ) • Provider (eSfJ)