Ad Ignorantiam: Something is true on the grounds that there is no evidence to disprove it. • The Communist witch hunt in the 1960’s • “ There is nothing in his files to say he is not a communist” • Senator Joe McCarthy
Post hoc ergo propter hoc • A follows B then B must be the cause of A • Murder rate goes up after the abolition of capital punishment, therefore can we say that capital punishment is an effective deterrent • It could be the case but we need more evidence
Explain this • As the number of churches in American cities increase so does the number of prostitutes!!!
Ad hominem • You attack the supporters of an argument • You may have a vested interest in something but that does not mean you cannot be fair.
Circular reasoning • Assuming the truth in something you are supposed to be proving • Page 126 in book
False Dilemma • Assuming there are only 2 ways of solving something when there are other options • Binary thinking • Pro life/ pro choice
Loaded Question • Do you always cheat in exams