Plants: Roots, Stems, Leaves Students will be able to describe the aspects of roots, stems, and leaves and their impact on our daily lives.
Plants • Plants and Animals interact on a daily basis. • Plants are used by animals for food. • Plants are used to make the oxygen necessary for animals to breathe. • Plants are different from animals, however their cells do contain a nucleus.
Plants: The Root • The root is a very important part of the plant and it has the following functions: • To help grip the plant to the soil. • To absorb water and minerals from the soil. • To store food. • To propagate or make new plants.
Plants: The Roots • The typical root has four parts: • Primary root- Grows downward and is the thickest. • Secondary root- Connected to the primary root, they are smaller and grow to the side. • Root cap- Protects the root and allows it to “drill” through the soil.
Plants: The Roots 4) Root hairs- absorb water and nutrients from the soil. • Some of the food we eat are plant roots- • Potatoes • Carrots • Onions • Beets
Plants: The Stem • The stem has two primary functions: • Maintain the flowers and leaves at a certain distance from the soil. • Carry the nutrients and water.
Plants: The Stem • The stem has several different parts: • Main stem- The most important stem, it is the stem that is most easily identified (trunk of a tree). • Secondary stem- Smalls stems that grow from the main stem (tree branches). • Nodes- Bulges in the stems were leaves grow.
Plants: The Stem • Internodes- Spaces between the nodes. • We do eat plant stems: • Celery • Asparagus • Sugar Cane
Plants: The Buds • Buds are responsible for plant growth. Buds can either be new stems, leaves, or flowers. • Buds are three parts: • Main terminal bud- The bud in charge of the upward growth of the plant. • Secondary terminal buds- Come from secondary stems, they make the secondary stems grow.
Plants: The Buds 3) Lateral buds- Are on the stem nodes, leaves and flowers grown from them. • We do eat buds from plants- • Artichokes • Cabbage
Plants: The Leaves • The leaves are probably the most important aspect of the plant, because they are in charge of photosynthesis. • There are many different sizes and shapes of leaves but leaves tend to have the same parts.
Plants: The Leaves 1) The Blade- The expanded part of the leaf. When people think of a leaf or draw a leaf it is usually the blade. • Veins- Wrinkles or pipes in the leaves, the central vein is called the midrib. 2) The Petiole- Connects the stem to the blade. Not every leaf has a petiole and are called stalkless.
Plants: The Seeds • Seeds are necessary for some plants to reproduce. • Each seed has several parts: • Embryo- the little plant • Endosperm- food supply in the seed • Seed Coat- outer layer of the seed
Gymnosperms • Gymnosperms (“naked seed”)- cone bearing plants are gymnosperms. • Pinophyta - Conifers • Ginkgophyta - Ginkgo • Cycadophyta - Cycads • Gnetophyta - Gnetum, Ephedra, Welwitschia
Angiosperms • Plants that produce flowers or fruits are called angiosperms (“flowering plants”). • Most species on the planet are angiosperms.
Plants: The Seeds • We do eat the seeds or fruits of plants- • Apples • Oranges • Beans • Grains • Nuts • Spices