What is a plumbing system? Plumbing includes all the piping and fixtures that provide water for drinking, cooking, bathing, and laundry; as well as a means of disposing of wastewater.
Putting in a plumbing system takes a lot of thought………………….When a house is being built, plumbers and carpenters must work together so the frame of the house is prepared for plumbing to be put in.
Plumbing can be dangerous, so there are codes that must be followed in order to keep everyone safe. A code is a set of rules that can be enforced by law!!!
Codes Why is it important to follow codes? • If it is not up to code it will not pass inspection and will have to be torn out and redone becoming very costly. • If it is poorly designed then it will not work well and owner will be unsatisfied. • Could cause wastewater to mix with potable water if not installed properly.
There are 2 Types of Plumbing Systems 1) Water Supply System 2) Drainage, Waste, and Venting (DWV)
Water Supply System • Distributes water under pressure throughout the structure for drinking, bathing, cooking, and laundry. • This is a 2 pipe system. • One pipe carries cold water, and the other hot water.
DWV • Carries away wastewater and solid waste from bathrooms, kitchens, and laundries. • This subsystem is not under pressure, and must be properly vented to prevent wastewater form entering the drinking water supply.
Pipe Sizing • Pipe is usually identified by the Nominal size (I.D. and O.D.) • Common sizes include ¼”, ½”, ¾”, 1”, 1and1/2”, 2”
Different Types of Pipes and Tubing • Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) • Polybutylene (PB) • Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) • Black Steel or Galvanized • Copper Tubing
Plastic Supply Piping Buff colored thermoplastic Light, easy to handle, resists cracks Good for freezing conditions Suitable for piping hot water Rating of 180 degrees Fahrenheit and 100 psi Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride(CPVC)
Polybutylene (PB) • Plastic Supply Piping • Flexible, allowing for easy installation • Connections made with compression fittings • Also called “Pex”
Plastic Piping Resists chemical attack Inexpensive Joined with a one-step solvent Used commonly for sewage and underground applications Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
Plastic Piping Has lower thermal expansion that makes long runs easier to control Joined with a two-step primer/solvent and suitable fittings Usually used for cold water applications Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Black Steel and Galvanized • Very strong • Not used much anymore • Wall thicknesses include standard, extra heavy, and double extra heavy
Available in soft, annealed, or rigid form Resists corrosion very well Very expensive Creates a bad taste if water is acidic May leave stains on valves, faucets, fixtures, and appliances Wall thicknesses include K (thickest), L, M Copper Tubing
Valves Devices that control the flow of water in the water supply system. They are installed at certain places on the lines so that water can be shut off easily.
Faucets Valves that permit controlled amounts of water as needed for use in a building. They deliver water to sinks, showers, and bathtubs, but can also deliver water to a hose or bucket.
Fixtures Water-using devices such as sinks, bathtubs, urinals, stools, showers, and water heaters. They are attached to the plumbing system and receive water from the supply system.
Used to connect pipes of similar or different types Adaptors = connect different types of pipes Reducers = connect different sizes of pipes Elbow = used for single direction change Tee = used for splitting a line into 2 directions Fittings
Fittings • Coupling = connects 2 similar types of pipes • Union = connects 2 similar types of pipes and can be opened later • Plug = used to close a fitting • Cap = used to close a pipe end • Nipple = a short piece of pipe