Reproductive SystemMale Reproductive System Main Sex Glands : Testes (2) – oval shaped Functions : produce sex cells – sperms from seminiferous tubule (live for 3~5 days). produce sex hormones – testosterone from interstitial cells. Anterior pituitary gland regulates interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH), and this hormone regulates testosterone.
Ducts: form sperm route from testes out of the body. Sperm route: sperm made in semiferous tubules epididymis vas deferens ejaculatory duct urethra out of the body. (Vasectomy --- cutting and tying vas deferens sterilization method.) • Accessary sex gland: seminal vesicle, bulbourethral gland, prostate gland. Function: produce alkaline secretion --- part of semen. Each ejaculation contains 3~5 mls, with 107~108 sperms. • External genitals: scrotum, penis. (circumcision) cutting the fore skin.
Male Reproductive System
Reproductive SystemFemale Reproductive System • Main Sex Glands : Ovary (2) – oval shaped Functions : • produce ova (egg, 15~24 hours) – from graafian follicles, total are 4 x 105 cells. Ova are in the female body since at birth. After the female reach to puberty, at a period of time (~28 days), usually one matured egg is released. • produce sex hormones – estrogen, progesterone.
Ducts: uterine tube (fallopian tubes), uterus, vagina. After ovulation, egg finds its way into one of the uterine tube, this is where the fertilization take place. Uterus --- Function: a. menstruation b. pregnancy c. labor Vagina --- Function: a. sperm entry b. baby emerges • Accessary gland: Bartholine glands --- secrete lubricating fluid. • External genitals: vulva
Female Reproductive System
MENSTRUAL CYCLEWhat cause menstruation – a sudden sharp drop in estrogen and progesterone MEANS Surface of endometrum Shed; bleeding (1~5 days) PREMENSE PHASE Thickening of the endometrium; blood supply (15~28 days) POST MENSE PHASE Repair of endometrium (6~13 days) OVULATION (14 days)
Anterior pituiary gland (APG) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Follicle Growth Estrogen increase APG Leuteinizing Hormone Leuteinization Estrogen and progesterone reach high level in blood Ovulation
Sexually Transmitted Diseases • Syphilis: Baterial infection – Antibiotics • Gonorrhea: Baterial infection – Antibiotics • Chlamydia: Baterial infection – Antibiotics • Genital Warts: Viral infection • Genital Herpes: Viral infection • HIV: Viral infection – AZT and cocktail treatment
Birth Control Methods Contraception • The rhythm method, detect ovulation (drop temperature) • Condom (rubber sheath) • Diaphragm • Intrauterine device (IUD) Sterilization • Vasectomy • Tubal ligation
From Fertilization to Birth Sperm ejaculation 30 mins Uterine tube 1 sperm and 1 egg (3~5 days before ovulation and 15~24 hours after ovulation) Zygote 3~4 days cell cleavage Travel to uterus Solid clusters of cells Blastocyst surface cells – have sticky surface for implantation inner cells – give rise to 3 layers endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm
Surface cells secret enzyme (digest some of the utering lining) 5~6 days Burrow inside, two membrane formed: Inner aminio fluid chorion – extension and fuse with uterus Placenta Differentiation begins: Endoderm – respiration, digestion Mesoderm – circulation, muscular, skeleton Ectoderm – skin, nerve system