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SENSORY INTEGRATION AND SENSORY CIRCUITS

SENSORY INTEGRATION AND SENSORY CIRCUITS

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SENSORY INTEGRATION AND SENSORY CIRCUITS

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  1. SENSORY INTEGRATION AND SENSORY CIRCUITS COURSE LEADER JANE HORWOOD

  2. UNDERSTANDING SENSORY PROCESSING

  3. TO GAIN A BASIC UNDERSTANDING OF SENSORY PROCESSING • TO RELATE SENSORY PROCESSING TO OURSELVES AND THE CHILDREN WE WORK WITH • TO GAIN IDEAS AND INTERVENTIONS • TO UNDERSTAND THE FORMULA OF SENSORY CIRCUITS AND HOW TO SET ONE UP AIMS

  4. DR JEAN AYRES • BRAIN BASED THEORY OF BEHAVIOUR • CHILD DEVELOPMENT • THE SOMETIMES TRAFFIC JAM • AFFECTS US ALL • THE WORLD IS A SENSORY PLACE THEORY OF SENSORY INTEGRATION

  5. UNTIL ABOUT 7 YEARS THE BRAIN IS DESCRIBED AS PRIMARILY A SENSORY PROCESSING MACHINE THE BRAIN SENSES THINGS AND GETS MEANING DIRECTLY FROM SENSATION A YOUNG CHILD DOESNT HAVE MANY ABSTRACT THOUGHTS/IDEAS ABOUT THINGS HE SENSES THEM AND MOVES IN RELATION TO THE SENSATION ADAPTIVE RESPONSES TO SENSATION ARE MORE MOTOR THAN MENTAL FIRST 7 YEARS ALL ABOUT SENSORYMOTOR DEVELOPMENT THE BRAIN AS A SENSORY PROCESSING MACHINE

  6. WHEN THE CHILD EXPERIENCES CHALLENGES TO WHICH HE CAN RESPOND EFFECTIVELY HE HAS FUN! • IT IS PLEASURABLE TO ORGANISE SENSATION WELL AND RESPOND IN WAYS THAT ARE MORE MATURE AND COMPLEX THAN ANYTHING DONE BEFORE • A HUMAN BEING IS DESIGNED TO ENJOY INPUT THAT PROMOTES BRAIN DEVELOPMENT THEREFORE WILL SEEK OUT SENSATIONS THAT HELP ORGANISE THE BRAIN HAVING FUN

  7. WHEN USING STANDADAISED SI TESTING SCORES SIMILAR TO THOSE SEEN IN CHILDREN WITH DYSPRAXIA • DIFFICULTIES LOCALISING TACTILE STIMULI • KNOWING WHERE THEIR HANDS ARE IF YOU CANT SEE THEM • POOR MOTOR PLANNING SENSORY PROCESSING AND A.S.D.

  8. OFTEN SMALL WINDOWS OF OPPORTUNITY WHEN IT ALL COMES TOGETHER • THE BRAIN CAN REGISTER AND FILTER AND DEAL WITH SENSATION ONE DAY BUT NOT THE NEXT • PROCESSING IS INCONSISTENT • THIS IS TO BE EXPECTED SENSORY PROCESSING AND A.S.D.

  9. CHILDREN LEARNING AND DEVELOPING THROUGH PLAY

  10. EXTERNAL SENSATION FROM THE ENVIRONMENT • TACTILE • AUDITORY • VISUAL • GUSTATORY • OLFACTORY SENSORY SYSTEMS

  11. VESTIBULAR SENSE • PROPRIOCEPTVE SENSE • VISCERAL SENSATION SENSATION FROM THE BODY

  12. ORAL DEFENSIVE • TACTILE DEFENSIVE • CNS CANNOT ORGANISE SENSATION ON RED ALERT • HIGH INVARIENT HEART RATE SLIGHTEST THING CAN OVERLOAD • EVERYTHING RELATED TO SAFETY,DEFENCE,CONTROL,SURVIVE,DEMAND OUT OF STEP BABIES

  13. AS AN INFANT IF OVERSTIMULATED YOU CAN SCREAM OR SHUT DOWN/FALL ASLEEP • ARE OUR VERY QUIET BABIES PERHAPS IN SHUT DOWN? • ARE OUR IRRATIBLE BABIES THAT DONT SLEEP TELLING US SOMETHING? • THESE ARE WARNING SIGNS ALL IS NOT OK OUT OF STEP BABIES

  14. SENSORY MODULATION DISORDERS • UNDER/OVERRESPONSIVITY • SENSORY BASED MOTOR DISORDERS • DYSPRAXIA/POSTURAL DISORDER • SENSORY DISCRIMINATION DISORDER • VISION/HEARING/TOUCH/TAST/SMELL/ • MOVEMENT/POSITION SENSORY INTEGRATION DYSFUNCTION

  15. Not every child who is late at reaching milestones or behaves differently from peers has SPD • SPD affects everything in daily life it is all pervading REMEMBER

  16. BEHAVIOURS THAT ARE SENSORY IN ORIGIN ARE STILL BEHAVIOIRS AND TO EXCUSE UNACCEPTABLE BEHAVIOURS IS A MISTAKE • THE BEHAVIOUR CAN INTERFERE WITH AN INDIVIDUALS ACCEPTANCE AND INTERACTION WITH HIS ENVIRONMNET AND DEPRIVE THEM OF LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES OR PLEASURABLE EXPERIENCES IS IT SENSORY OR BEHAVIOUR

  17. BEHAVIOURS ARE OFTEN COMPLEX AND HAVE MULTIPLE CAUSES • MOST POSITIVE CHANGE OCCURS WHEN BEHAVIOUR AND SENSORY ISSUES ARE CONSIDERED TOGETHER • INDIVIDUALS OFTEN USE A SIMILAR STRATEGY TO COPE IN DIFFERENT SITUATIONS EG IN EVERY OVERWHELMING SITUATION HE CRIES,THEN HITS OUT THEN FLEES! IS IT SENSORY OR BEHAVIOUR

  18. REMEMBER SENSORY BASED PROBLEMS OCCUR ACROSS MULTIPLE ENVIRONMENTS/SETTINGS • IF PURELY BEHAVIOURAL STRATEGIES ARE USED WITH SENSORY BASED BEHAVIOURS THEY ARE NOT VERY SUCCESSFUL! • BY TRYING TO LOOK AT THE CONFUSING OR UNUSUAL BEHAVIOURS THROUGH SENSORY GLASSES ORDER CAN BE CREATED AND A PROGRAMME DEVELOPED TO ADDRESS BEHAVIOURS IS IT SENSORY OR BEHAVIOUR

  19. POSTURAL DISORDER

  20. SENSORY MODULATION DISORDER

  21. SENSORY DEFENSIVENESS IS A CONSTELLATION OF SYMPTOMS RELATED TO AVERSIVE OR DEFENSIVE REACTIONS TO NON NOXIOUS STIMULI ACROSS ONE OR MORE SENSORY SYSTEMS • OVERREACTION OF THE NORMAL PROTECTIVE SENSES WITH PATTERNS OF AVOIDANCE,SENSATION SEEKING,FEAR ANXIETY AND AGGRESSION THAT ARE VERY INDIVIDUAL SENSORY OVERRESPONSIVITY OR SENSORY DEFENSIVENESS

  22. BOTHERED BY • TEXTURES/MESSY PLAY • CERTAIN FOODS/CRUMBS AROUND MOUTH • GROOMING/PERSONAL CARE • SMELLS/FRAGRANCE • NOISE • BRIGHTLIGHT/SUNSHINE • MOVEMENT/BEING UPSIDE DOWN SENSORY SYMPTOMS OF OVERRESPONSIVITY

  23. Aggressive or impulsive when overwhelmed by sensation • Irritable/Fussy/Moody • Unsociable/difficulty forming relationships • Excessively cautious/afraid to try new things • Upset by transitions/unexpected change • Monitors the environment constantly vigilant • Underlying anxiety • Anticipatory avoidance the thought of something is enough! OVERRESPONSIVE BEHAVIOURS

  24. Doesn`t cry when hurt • Doesn`t notice touch • Dislikes new physical activities • Prefers sedentary activities • Slow unmotivated re self help skills • Unaware of what`s going on around him • Uses vision to operate hands • Unaware of hot/cold/hunger Sensory symptoms of underresponsivity

  25. THE PAIN TEST • INDIVIDUAL MAY APPEAR UNDERAROUSED,UNDERRESPONSIVE BUT IF THEY HAVE A DECREASED PAIN RESPONSE THEN MAY BE SENSORY DEFENSIVE/OVER RESPONSIVE • PAIN IS SUPPRESSED AT HIGH LEVELS OF AROUSAL REMEMBER

  26. Passive.Quiet.Withdrawn. • In own world • Apathetic/tires easily • Slow to respond to directions/complete work • Little inner drive • Poor at social interactions/difficult to engage • Poor registration of sensory input e.g. doesn't react to name being called, oblivious to new people in room Behaviours re sensory underesponsivity

  27. On the move constantly • Crashing/banging/rough play • Touches everything • Excessive risks in play • Excessive spinning/swinging/rolling • Strongly flavoured food • Chews/licks non food items • Cant sit still Sensory seeking symptoms

  28. Angry/explosive • Intense/demanding/hard to calm • Prone to create dangerous/”bad” situations • May be excessively affectionate physically • Often poor at self regulation with levels of arousal or attention that are inappropriate to the task/setting • Resting Arousal level often too high Sensory seeking behaviour

  29. Sensory seeking fun

  30. Poor muscle tone • Appears weak/cant pull/push • Poor balance/falls over/bumps into things • Poor endurance • Slumps at the table/desk • Bilateral problems Sensory postural disorders

  31. Appear lazy • Appear indifferent/unmotivated • Appears weak/limp • Tired most of the time • Cant hold their own in rough and tumble play Sensory postural disorder behaviours

  32. Uses vision to monitor hands/body • Cant judge force and effort required in a task • Hearing what is said against background noise • Finding way around a building/environments • Differentiating smells • Recognising objects by their shape Sensory Discrimination Symptoms

  33. Gets lost easily/cant follow directions • Dislikes puzzles/visual games • Frustration in noisy settings • Needs instruction repeated • Needs more time to perform a task Sensory Discrimination Behaviours

  34. RECEPTORS IN INNER EAR • BODY POSITION AND MOVEMENT • POSTURAL TONE • STABILISATION OF EYES DURING HEAD MOVEMENT • ALERTNESS AND SELF REGULATION VESTIBULAR SYSTEM

  35. VESTIBULAR FUN FOR ALL

  36. HYPOSENSITIVITY HYPERSENSITIVITY SENSORY BASED POSTURAL DISORDER VESTIBULAR SYSTEMS

  37. Backward head movement • Head up side down • Visual cliffs e.g. stairs • Challenge to balance/centre of gravity • Movement through space Vestibular/Movement

  38. Play and exploration of the environment • Going in transport/buggy/vibration in vehicles • Grooming e.g. hair washing • Moving across uneven surfaces up and down steps and stairs/escalators Effects of vestibular difficulties

  39. POSTURAL

  40. PERCEPTION OF JOINT AND BODY MOVEMENT • PERCEPTION OF POSITION OF BODY OR BODY SEGMENTS IN SPACE • RATE AND TIMING OF MOVEMENT • FORCE AND EFFORT • SPATIAL ORIENTATION OF BODY PARTS PROPRIOCEPTIVE SYSTEM

  41. BANGERS,CRASHERS,SHAKERS,MOVERS • TIGHT CLOTHING • BITES,CHEWS • CAN HURT OTHERS GETS IT WRONG • CAN BE CLUMSY • DIFFICULTY WITH MOTOR SKILLS CYCLING,JUMPING JACKS • SLEEPING,EATING PROPRIOCEPTIVE DYSFUNCTION

  42. Weight bearing /difficulties walking on uneven surfaces on steps and stairs • Weight bearing on arms and legs as an infant e.g. crawling, mobilising • Using objects e.g. pushing/pulling lifting, holding on/holding a grip • Chewing certain textures or consistencies Proprioceptive difficulties

  43. HITTING GIVES ME GOOD PROPRIOCEPTIVE FEEDBACK!

  44. PRIMARY SYSTEM FOR MAKING CONTACT WITH THE OUTSIDE WORLD • NOURISHED AND CALMED THROUGH TOUCH • ROOTING REFLEX • FIRST SENSORY SYSTEM TO FUNCTION IN UTERO • MENTAL,PHYSICAL,AND EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOUR TACTILE SYSTEM

  45. VIBRATION • TOUCH PRESSURE • PAIN • TEMPERATURE • LIGHT TOUCH • TICKLE TACTILE SYSTEM

  46. NEGATIVE REACTIONS TO TOUCH • UPSET IN RAIN,WIND,GNATS • BARBER,DENTIST,DOCTOR • TEETH CLEANING,HAIR BRUSHING,NAILS CUTTING • CLOTHES • PAIN,OVER RESPOND,UNDER RESPOND,HYPERCHONDRIAC TACTILE DYSFUNCTION

  47. Being touched by others/affection • Grooming and hygiene tasks including showers/baths • Wearing clothes/changing clothing/clothing that is tight in certain places or touches certain places • Going barefoot • Environmental exploration/touching objects/food/grasping Tactile difficulties

  48. Decreased pain awareness/hurts self/seeks out intense stimuli/dangerous situations • Over sensitivity even to the possibility of pain • Tooth brushing/dentist • Eating • Mouthing objects/chewing clothing • Speech certain sounds not articulated that pass air over tongue and lips e.g. mmmmm! Tactile Difficulties