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History of Censorship

History of Censorship

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History of Censorship

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  1. CENSORSHIP, MEDIA AND GENDERPresented by:Bushra Rafiqex Director/G.M PTV TRAINING ACADEMYISLAMABADOctober, 13- 2012

  2. History of Censorship • Censorship comes form the Latin word Censor. • In Ancient Greece, where the democracy was founded, the philosopher Socrates fought against and eventually gave his life, he did not hear the Athens's government, who wanted to censor his teachings

  3. History of Censorship • In Rome the word censor was used for officials who has the duties • To count the citizens of the country • To supervise their morals.

  4. History of Censorship • Great Britain • Soviet Union • Russia • United States • East Germany • Iran

  5. Types of Censorship • Educational Censorship • Moral Censorship • Military Censorship • Political Censorship • Religious Censorship • Corporate Censorship

  6. Who Imposes Censorship • Authoritarian Rulers • The leaders, who are in power by dint of democracy. • Family dynasty. • Military coup. • Rigged elections. • Disputed legitimacy of leadership is at the heart of Censorship and media crackdowns.

  7. Tactics of Censorship • Ban on Declaration Certificate • Killing of Journalists • Blockage of News Channels • Organizational Pressures • Passing of Bills by Senate & Parliament • Blockage of Websites and satellite broadcast

  8. Ten Most Censored Countries Committee to protect Journalists (CPJ) has analyzed and identified the most censored countries are….. • Eritrea • North Korea • Syria • Iran • Equatorial Guinea

  9. Ten Most Censored Countries • Uzbekistan • Burma • Saudi Arabia • Cuba • Belarus

  10. THE POWERFUL MEDIA RESISTS • Media has proved to be a force for change • Media Support for lawyers movement for independent judiciary and non interference in judges appointments • Facilitated the reinstatement (2009) of Supreme Court Chief Justice “Mr. Iftikhar Choudhary” • Media Campaign against US Aid Package known as the “Kerry Lugar Bill” • Media Support was appreciated by Army Chief for the initiatives taken by the army against Militants

  11. MEDIA OF PAKISTAN • Issued 78 satellite TV licenses • Issued “landing rights” to 28 TV Channels operating from abroad, with more under consideration • Issued licenses for 129 FM radio stations, including 18 non-commercial licenses to leading universities offering courses mass communication and six licenses in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. • Registered 2,346 cable TV Sytems serving 8 millions house holds • Issued 6 MMDS (Multi Channel Multi point distribution service) to internet protocol TV (IP TV), and 2 mobile TV licenses

  12. MEDIA OF PAKISTAN • PEMRA is involved in media censorship and occasionally halts broadcasts and closes media outlets. Publication of broadcast of “anything which defames of bring into ridicule the head of state , or member of the armed forces, or executive legislative or judicial organs of the state,” as well as any broadcasts deemed to be “false or broadcast” can bring jail terms of up to three years, fines of up to 10 million rupees (US$ 165,000) and license cancellation.

  13. CENSORSHIP IN PAKISTAN • The weak political system invites Military intervention. • The military rule being unelected and in the Government tries to avoid criticism • General Ayub Khan introduced Press and Publication Ordinance (PPO), on Sep-08-1963. it stated that………

  14. CENSORSHIP IN PAKISTAN • To get declaration certificate for GOVT was made mandatory before launching a newspaper. It was prerogative of the government to issue declaration certificate or deny it without showing any reason. • The government reserved the rights to cancel declaration of any newspaper whenever it is displeased with the functioning of any newspaper organization. In that condition, the newspaper ceased to exist anymore. • In certain circumstances judicial and assembly proceedings were not allowed to be made public under the PPC

  15. CENSORSHIP IN PAKISTAN • Sufficient economic measure were essentially shown to the district magistrate before getting declaration certificate for the newspaper. This was an attack from economic front on the press either to stop going against the government to stop living without being financially viable • PPO did not allow the aggrieved party to consult the court of law for justice against its closure, fine or any other punishment. • PPO allowed the government to suspend publication of any newspaper for indefinite period of confiscate any printing press for some period.

  16. PRIVATIZATION AND LIBERALIZATION OF BROADCAST AND ELECTRONIC MEDIA • Since 2002, 92 private television channels (26 of which focus exclusively on news and current events) and over 130 FM radio stations have taken to the Pakistani airwaves.


  18. GENDER BASED CENSORSHIP • Deny validity to their experience. • Exclude women from political discourse.

  19. WHO CAUSES GENDER BIASES • Government Officials • Religious Fanatics • Parents : who decide it does not pay to invest in a girl education • Teachers:who discourage girls from having ambitions beyond motherhood • Publishers:who don’t think it worth to publish books written by women • Critics: who are unable to take work by women seriously. • Family: Fathers or Husbands may suppress their daughters of wife because they don't wish them to have an independent identity they feel work of women in the family belongs to them

  20. WHO CAUSES GENDER BIASES • Right wing movements attack women for violating their traditional role by becoming writers or even working outside the home. • In educational systems attacks on female education are the desire to keep women silent, that is apparent in death threats against women (SAWAT CASE)

  21. WHO CAUSES GENDER BIASES • Censorship by threat is becoming common particularly in societies at war or gripped by religious fundamentalists • Gender discrimination in higher education in North America is seen where the “Hard Sciences” like “surgery” are nearly close to women. • In the Russian language the use of word “women writer” is problematic because men begin to smile and speak about “some stupid women things” as a result serious poets and writers prefer to use the word of man writer to defend the quality of their creative activity

  22. POTRAIL OF WOMEN IN MEDIA • Beauty and body image • Women become a sexual object • Sex and violence • Women in news and politics • Women athletes • Media and girls

  23. WHAT TO DO FOR A BALANCE MEDIA Media is nuclear energy if used well brings great benefits • Taboo topics should be dealt with maturity • Sex Education should be provided (AIDS/ Breast Cancer etc) • Violence should be avoided • Comments on religion or race should be carefully presented.

  24. WHAT TO DO FOR A BALANCE MEDIA IN TERM OF GENDER BIASES It is recommended that • adopt polices aiming at improving women’s access to all forms to media • Ensure Media legislations which guarantees of equal access for women • Ensure that effective ethical and self regulatory code of conduct are in place which includes a gender sensitive approach to media work and prohibits the use of derogatory stereotypes of women • Designee Media Training Programme which promote understanding of issues related to sex and discrimination

  25. WHAT TO DO FOR A BALANCE MEDIA IN TERM OF GENDER BIASES • Develop gender sensitive methodology and adoption of a gender sensitive approach to…... • Story angle • Choice of interviewees • Gender sensitive Language • Images etc

  26. WHAT TO DO FOR A BALANCE MEDIA IN TERM OF GENDER BIASES • Encourage media regulatory bodies to adopt the gender sensitive approach • Encourage the creation of women journalists associations that could raise awareness • Ensure equal opportunities for female and male media professionals • Address existing discrimination against female representation in the profession • Strengthen dialogs and debates between women’s and feminist organization and broadcasters • Encourage the development of women and feminist press globally

  27. PROS & CONS OF CENSORSHIP • Most countries have given the freedom of speech and expression of thought to its citizens • Each country and culture censors in its own way, what to show and what not to show differs in the media of different countries.

  28. PROS • Protection of minors pornographic material • Protection of information / intelligence of national security (regarding military affairs) • Promote good morals • Prevents violent massages / events from being delivered (we want to save the children) • Prevents to spread of harmful information (Bomb making, how to suicide methods) • Advertisement of cigarettes have negative effects

  29. CONS • Freedom of speech and media is violated • Prevents the spread of idea and knowledge • Leads to ignorance and bias beliefs (ignorant remains ignorant) • Associated with editorships not progressive democracy • Encourages curiosity about censored material • Resists questioning of conventional ideas including healthy opposition

  30. Censorship is all about degree. • About how much to show and how much to hide should be decided carefully. • It has its pros but if the content in the media is manipulated by some people with vested interest the whole point of democracy and freedom of speech becomes useless

  31. Censor boards need to ask themselves: • What is the rational between the censorship? • Are we censoring the media as per that rational? • Is the media being allowed to display what it ought to display? • Are they showing things that people want or need to know about?

  32. SURVEY RESULTS • As a result of survey done in the past the results show that: • Most people felt censorship is necessary for our society and that age restrictions for certain material is needed. • They didn’t want government involvement when it came to censorship, they also didn’t want government to censor history books.

  33. SURVEY RESULTS • Older people generally agreed with all form of censorship. • Younger population didn’t agree with censorship. • Female also seem to support censorship more than men.