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Welcome to “The Interpreted Education: Things We Might Not Be Considering” Gadsden Workshop, January 8, 2008. To download this presentation visit www.nmsd.k12.nm.us . Go to “publications.”. Who Are We?. Who Are You?. INTERPRETERS Grades you interpret for?
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Welcome to“The Interpreted Education: Things We Might Not Be Considering”Gadsden Workshop, January 8, 2008 To download this presentation visit www.nmsd.k12.nm.us. Go to “publications.”
Who Are You? INTERPRETERS Grades you interpret for? Number of students you work with? Completed an interpreter training program? Certified according to NM requirements? Number of years you have worked? EDUCATORS Teacher with an interpreter in your classroom? Deaf Educator? Special Educator? PARENT How old is your child? OTHER?
Workshop Objectives • Participants will understand that a successful interpreted education requires a strong educational team. 2. Participants will recognize factors that make a student ready to utilize an interpreter. 3. Participants will gain an understanding of professionals’ roles in an interpreted educational setting. 4. Participants will recognize the complexity and responsibility of interpreting as a profession.
TODAY’S PLAN Goals and Roles of the Interpreted Education Student Readiness to Use Interpreters Inverted Triangles – Leading Students to Self-Advocacy (LUNCH) Video Panel – “Deaf Adults Reflect: My Experience in the Interpreted Environment” Academic/Non-Academic Aspects of School Interpreter EGO and What Interpreters Know? The Interpreter as a Tutor PD/What Certification Tells/Doesn’t Tell Us Final Questions/Comments
Is the interpreter’s job what you think it is? K-12 interpreting requires much more than interpreting skill!
Goals of the Interpreted Education • Students will: • have access to content material. • have opportunities to communicate with their peers. • be able to participate in classroom discussions. • have opportunities to build one-on-one relationships with the teacher and other adults in the educational environment. • have opportunities to become contributing citizens in their school communities. • have opportunities to fail and succeed based on their own performance.
Classroom Teachers K-12 Interpreters D/HH Students Special Educators/Deaf Educators School Community Everyone in the Student’s Environment is Part of the Team!
Classroom Teachers • Have the same expectations for work quality, participation and behavior for all students • Accept full responsibility for the education and classroom management of all students. • Guide any supplemental academic support needed by the D/HH student (i.e. tutoring) • Use visual supports during instruction – this will benefit all students! • Provide the interpreter all materials necessary for adequate preparation. • Understand the use of interpreting services (i.e. interpreter uses first • person, lag time, interpreter may interrupt for clarification, ALL messages spoken will be interpreted)
K-12 Interpreters • Follow the Code of Professional Conduct • Fully prepare for assignments by acquiring and becoming familiar with content to be covered. • Interpret instructional situations – including student to student dialogue • Interpret non-instructional situations that facilitate communication throughout the entire school day • Participate as a communicative member of the school’s educational team • Communicate regularly about the interpreting process so team members understand the work. • Advise on the visual accessibility of the school environment. • Lead student to appropriate use of interpreting services.
D/HH Students • Indicate when they don’t understand a message • Be aware that the interpreter will voice for them at all times – and the need to inform the interpreter when a conversation is private • Accept responsibility for academic performance, homework assignments, class participation, deadlines, supplies, etc. • Direct questions to appropriate individuals…not the interpreter • Be aware of when personal conversations with the interpreter are appropriate • Accept responsibility for personal success or failure in their school experience • Face the group or individual with whom they are communicating
Deaf Educator/Special Educator • Provide support for general classroom teacher regarding instructional strategies that will best address the academic and social needs of D/HH students • Provide direct instruction for the D/HH student when deemed appropriate • Provide supplemental instruction when appropriate • Provide “case manager” services for the D/HH student
School Community • Understand how to utilize interpreting services to communicate with D/HH students and staff • Maintain eye contact directly D/HH students and staff while using an interpreter • Learn as much sign language as possible in order to have direct communication opportunities with D/HH students and staff
How do we know a student is ready to receive interpreting services?
Student Information That Must Be Gathered by a Qualified Educational Team Interactive and cognitive abilities Will the interpreted message be supporting spoken language or replacing it? Vision Pragmatic Skills in Signed Language Receptive Skills in Signed Language Semantics/Vocabulary in Signed Language Syntax: Structure and complexity of language(s) used by the student Speech and Auditory Skills English literacy/spelling Ability to maintain eye contact with interpreter Ability to ask for clarification or repetition Does the student know they are deaf?
Categories of Student Readiness --- Interpreter Roles to Support Them
Various Interpreter Roles Necessary to Meet Various Student Needs K-12 Interpreter Interpreter Aide Interpreter Tutor Sometimes a student may not be able to use an interpreter at all!
STUDENT #1 Limited developmentally in language and cognitive skills? (consider all aspects previously discussed) Unfamiliar with the interpreter role and not developmentally ready? (as determined by the educational team)? Not able to understand an interpreter nor to handle the standard curriculum in an integrated setting? This student is not ready to receive interpreter service and requires direct services from an Educational Team trained in working with D/HH students and fluent in the student’s language and communication mode.
That educational team…. • is formally trained in working with deaf/hard-of-hearing students. • is able to meet identified student needs in all incidental and/or structured learning opportunities outside the classroom. • has knowledge and skills in assessing student progress in communication and overall language and consistently incorporates assessment information into educational programming. • can provide a parallel experience in the classroom; exposing the student to the same concepts being introduced to all the students • can simplify or expand concepts as appropriate. • can develop a specific plan to monitor and assess the development of the student’s language.
STUDENT #2 Lagging developmentally in language and cognitive skills? (Consider all aspects listed previously.) Familiar with the interpreter role and developmentally ready? (as determined by the educational team)? Able to handle the standard curriculum in an integrated setting with intensive support and supplemental instruction? This student may or may not be ready to receive services from an Interpreter - Tutor.
STUDENT #3 Developmentally on track in language and cognitive skills? (Consider all aspects previous discussed.) Familiar with the interpreter role and developmentally ready? (as determined by the educational team) Able to handle the standard curriculum in an integrated setting with considerable support? The student may or may not be ready to receive services from an Interpreter-Aide who can work as a aide to assist in support designed by the classroom teacher.
STUDENT #4 Developmentally on track in language and cognitive skills? (consider all aspects previously discussed) Familiar with the interpreter role and developmentally ready? (as determined by the educational team) Able to handle the standard curriculum in an integrated setting with minimal support? The student is likely ready to receive services from an (K-12) Educational Interpreter.
Increasing levels of self advocacy Student Interpreter Guiding the student to a place of independence Inverted Triangles
DEAF ADULTS REFLECT: THEIR EXPERIENCE IN THE INTERPRETED CLASSROOM
Access to the Whole School Experience Academic Environment Non-Academic Environment Academic Environment Non-Academic Environment
The Down Side Interpreters often… • perceive that student success or failure is linked to them • like feeling needed • enjoy the fact that people love watching them use such a beautiful language • enjoy the fact that people assume they are competent • can be a barrier to a student’s independence • can be a barrier to a student’s ability to integrate with their hearing peers • can cross boundaries and roles that make the field of interpreting muddy for students and colleagues
The Up Side Interpreters Can… • be a major influence to a student becoming independent and a self-advocate • be the bridge that enables a student to integrate with their hearing peers • provide access that may propel student interest in academic material • raise the bar for how the field of interpreting is understood by students and the community in general
What unique expertise/knowledge do interpreters bring to the educational team? STUDENT’S USE OF SERVICE ---- Length of attention? Tire easily? More attentive in certain subjects? Clarity of adult roles? Respectful of roles? STUDENT’S PERFORMANCE IN INTERPRETED CLASSROOM ---- Frequency that message requires expansion or simplification Success of student in writing down classroom information How students incorporate new vocabulary and concepts When and where does the student use amplification The quality of a student’s response (sign vs. written) STUDENT’S INTERACTIONS ---- Level of interaction and/or isolation Reaction to classroom personalities Understanding of turn-taking When the student is most or least engaged When and where the student uses spoken language
The Interpreter as a TutorReally!?!Is that their job?!?In many cases…YES!
Why is Tutoring Necessary? • Students often lack the foundational/world knowledge needed to build new concepts • Students are often delayed linguistically • Students may not have mastered the ability to receive large amounts of content via an interpreter • Educators may not use teaching strategies friendly to students who benefit from visual supports • Sometimes a student just needs tutoring to support a specific subject area
Student Categories of Interpreter Readiness • Able to access standard curriculum via an interpreter. • Able to access standard curriculum via an interpreter with considerable support. • Able to access standard curriculum via an interpreter with intensive support and supplemental instruction. • Not able to access curriculum via an interpreter. These students may need light support, but not tutoring. These students may greatly benefit from tutoring. These students need direct instruction, not tutoring.
Who Could the Aide/Tutor Be? Deaf Educator Resource Teacher Classroom Aide K-12 Interpreter Contracted Tutor
Readiness Skills to Be a Tutor • Fluent direct communication skills in signed language – the ability to dialogue and interact with the student for the purpose of developing knowledge – awareness of root word etymology in sign language and English to promote appropriate selection of conceptually accurate signs • Ability to work as a team member – gathering all information necessary to create meaningful tutoring sessions • Organization and planning skills • Understanding that individuals learn differently and knowing various strategies to address those learning styles • Patient, understanding and fair • Proficient in content area • Ability to present information clearly • Ability to solicit information from the student • Ability to give constructive feedback
When Should Support Happen? Pre-Lesson Support Lay the foundation for the content that will be presented to students during the lesson/unit Mid-Lesson Support Emphasize and draw student’s attention to key points during the lesson Post-Lesson Support Reinforce or re-emphasize key points from the lesson/unit
Planning and Preparing • Take the time to plan for the session – use a consistent format • Have frequent communication with the classroom teacher – know their long-term unit goals, as well as their objectives for each lesson – this will steer everything! • Include the student in planning, whenever possible • Share the session goal(s) with the student – review the goal(s) at the end of the session with the student and assess success or the need to re-visit • Gather supplies and resources needed ahead of time
Online Tutoring Resources http://school.discovery.com/lessonplans/ This site allows you to explore a wide range of age/grade appropriate topics. http://atozteacherstuff.com/Lesson_Plans/index.shtml Type in the subject you are tutoring for ideas. http://www.eduref.org/Virtual/Lessons/index.shtml Another site with lesson plan ideas. http://content.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=2983 This site allows you to download a range of graphic organizers. http://www.eduplace.com/kids/hme/k_5/graphorg/ More graphic organizers!
Tutoring References “Tutoring Techniques,” Three Rivers Community College, Norwich, CT, http://www.trctc.commnet.edu/ “Tips for Tutors,” Center for Learning and Teaching, Cornell University, www.cornell.edu “Tutor Strategies that Work,” California State University – Fresno, www.csufresno.edu/ “Attentive and Critical Listening: Description,” Strategic Communication Model, Center for Communication in Science, Technology and Management, North Carolina State University, www.ncsu.edu/ “Tutor Training,” Berry College Academic Support Center, http://www.berry.edu “Literacy Guide – Valuable Hints for Successful Tutoring,” Bank Street College of Education, http://www.bankstreet.edu/literacyguide/hints.html “Tutor Tips,” Literacy of Northern New York, http://www.proliteracynny.org/tips.htm
What Interpreter Certification… • Doesn’t Tell Us….. • If the interpreter is a balanced bilingual • If they have a background in or knowledge of child development • If they have a background in or knowledge of education • If they understand and follow the code of ethics • If they are culturally sensitive to Deaf people and their experiences • If they are a member of a professional organization • If they are qualified to interpret in a given subject area (i.e. calculus) • If they perform well in less a controlled, non-testing environment Tells Us….. The interpreter met a minimum standard on a given day using a signed language and spoken English. • May Tell Us… • An interpreter’s skill level in transliterating and/or interpreting in general • Something about their educational background • Something about their knowledge of interpreting theory and ethics on a given day
Ongoing Professional DevelopmentSuggestions for K-12 Interpreters INTERACT WITH DEAF ADULTS Do you always understand them? Do they always understand you? Do you understand them when they sign to each other? ATTEND WORKSHOPS/CONFERENCES www.rid.org www.nmsd.k12.nm.us USE DVDs AND BOOKS DawnSign Press Sign Media TJ Publishing FORM PD DISCUSSION GROUPS Use test results to work with your peers. Videotape yourselves and swap for feedback. Pick a topic for weekly/monthly discussion Start a book club. Host a signing supper. BE OPEN TO MENTORING Become a mentor! Ask someone to mentor you. www.cdhh.state.nm.us
WHAT QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS DO YOU HAVE?
New Mexico School for the DeafCenter for Information, Training and Professional DevelopmentThank You for Attending!For more information contact:Bonnie Lyn BarkerBonnieLyn.email@example.comCindy HuffCindy.Huff@nmsd.k12.nm.us To download this presentation visit www.nmsd.k12.nm.us. Go to “publications.”