1.1 Characteristics of living organisms What you need to be able to do: • List and describe the characteristics of living organisms • Define nutrition, excretion, respiration, sensitivity, growth, reproduction and movement
Starter Read the definition and name the life process
An action by an organism or part of an organism causing a change of position or place MOVEMENT
The chemical reactions that break down nutrient molecules in living cells to release energy RESPIRATION
The ability to detect or sense changes in the environment (stimuli) and to make responses SENSITIVITY
A permanent increase in size and dry mass by an increase in cell number or cell size or both GROWTH
Removal from organisms of toxic materials, the waste products of metabolism and substances in excess of requirements EXCRETION
The taking in of nutrients which are organic substances and mineral ions, containing raw materials or energy for growth and tissue repair, absorbing and assimilating them NUTRITION
Characteristics of living things A mnemonic to help you remember: e Say what you see!
ovement espiration M R S G R E N ensitivity rowth eproduction xcretion utrition
Tasks 1. Match up the pictures and descriptions of the life processes in your booklet. 2. Complete the Living Things crossword.
1.2 Classification systems What you need to be able to do: • Define and describe the binomial system of naming species • List the main features of the following vertebrate groups - bony fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals • Know of other classification systems, e.g.cladistics • List the main features used in the classification of viruses, bacteria and fungi
Starter Watch the BrainPop video "Classification"
Biological Classification Binomial Nomenclature While you watch the video write down the rules for naming organisms What does binomial mean? Two names
Rules for binomial classification 1. All organisms have a two part name 2. The first part of the name is the Genus and starts with a capital letter 3. The second part of the name is the species and starts with a lowercase letter 4. If the name is written by hand it is underlined 5. If the name is typed it is italicised.
The binomial system gives each organism a two part name showing the genus and species Genus speciesGenus species Genus species Panthera leo Panthera tigris Panthera onca
Other classification systems Cladistics
Other classification systems Previously scientists used the morphology (observable features) of organisms to put them into groups. Now many species are being reordered because of similarites and differences in their DNA
Tasks 1. Write a mnemonic to help you remember the order of the taxonomic groups 2. Find the classification and the binomial name for modern man 3. Complete past paper question 1
Starter Watch BrainPop "The Six Kingdoms"
Tasks 1. Use your textbook and what you saw in the video to complete the Key Features of the Kingdoms table in your booklet.
Viruses Watch the BrainPop video "Viruses" Viruses are not included in the 5 kingdom classification. Can you think why?
Viruses Consist of: • An outer protein coat or capsid • Genetic material - a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) • May be helical, icosahedral in shape or phages • e.g. HIV, influenza, measles, herpes simplex
Tasks 1. Label the diagrams of the two viruses 2. Watch this video 3. Draw a storyboard to explain how viruses use human body cells to replicate
Kingdom Fungi Watch the BrainPop video "Fungi" • Fungi were originally classified as plants. • Why was this classification incorrect? • Fungi are eukaryotes with cells similar to plants and animals. • They are usually saprophytes and feed on dead or decaying plant and animals
Yeast • Single celled • Reproduces by budding (asexual reproduction) • Used in brewing and baking Sacchcaromyces cerevisiae
Mucor hiemalis • Consist of tubes called hyphae • Many hyphae make a mass called a mycelium • Secrete enzymes to digest food externally
Edible mushroom • Reproduce sexually using fruiting bodies which can be large (and edible!) • New fungi are produced from spores. • Spread via water which is why fungi are found in damp places
Tasks 1. Draw and label a yeast cell and pin mould 2. Answer the questions in your booklet 3. Answer past paper question 2
Kingdom Bacteria Watch the BrainPop video "Bacteria" • Prokaryotic organisms - made of simple cells without a nucleus • Cause infectious diseases • Can be treated with antibiotics (against life) • e.g. Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp.
Bacteria • Can be rods, spirals or spheres • Reproduce asexually by binary fission
Tasks 1. Draw and label a typical bacterial cell 2. Complete past paper question 3
Kingdom Animal - Vertebrate Groups Starter Watch the BrainPop video "Vertebrates" Make a list of the features of each vertebrate group What is the common feature of all vertebrates?
Mammals • Warm blooded (homeotherms) • Breathe using lungs • Body covered with hair or fur • Internal fertilisation • Viviparous • Offspring develop internally supported by placenta • Feed young using milk (suckle) • e.g. humans, dogs, cats, dolphins
Birds • Warm blooded • Bodies covered with feathers • Have beaks • Breathe using lungs • Internal fertilisation • Lay eggs with hard shells • e.g. penguins, owls, pigeon, sparrow
Reptiles • Cold blooded (ectotherms) • Breathe using lungs • Body covered with hard scales • Internal fertilisation • Lay soft shelled (leathery) eggs • e.g. crocodile, iguana, turtle