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Done by: Ong Wei Sern Sim Yew Chong Tan Yan Wei Ang Zheng Yong PowerPoint Presentation
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Done by: Ong Wei Sern Sim Yew Chong Tan Yan Wei Ang Zheng Yong

Done by: Ong Wei Sern Sim Yew Chong Tan Yan Wei Ang Zheng Yong

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Done by: Ong Wei Sern Sim Yew Chong Tan Yan Wei Ang Zheng Yong

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  1. BP Oil Spill Done by: Ong Wei Sern Sim Yew Chong Tan Yan Wei AngZheng Yong

  2. Introduction • The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, also known as “BP Oil Spill” : The Gulf Of Mexico in 2010 ** BP- British multinational oil and gas company HQ in London • Largestaccidental marine oil spill >30% larger in volume than the “Ixtoc I” oil spill • Total discharge:210 million US gallons

  3. Introduction • 20 April 2010: High-pressure methane gas from the well expanded into the drilling riser and rose into the drilling rig • Drilling rig- Ignited and explode, engulfing the platform, causing the historic oil spill • Failed efforts to contain flow 19 September 2010:Well capped and declared sealed

  4. Causes • Flawed well design • Poor management decisions • Inadequate preparation • Ignorant towards critical indicators • Insufficient training • Violation of federal regulations

  5. Causes • Cement failure-Base of well containing oil and gas.Allowing natural gas under huge pressure to shoot onto drilling platform  EXPLOSION • Flawed Design:Cement used to seal the bottom of well  Failed to contain hydrocarbons within the reservoir as they were designed to do Allowing gas and liquids to flow up the production casing.

  6. Causes • Poor management decisions:Rush to completion of the well Huge financial pressure to cut costs and rush the job  The project: $50 million over budget Behind schedule

  7. Causes • Inadequate Preparation: BP wellhead was fitted with a blowout preventer (BOP) improperly for use during emergency Failed to engage. Hydrocarbons shot up the well at an uncontrollable rate and ignited, causing a series of explosions on the rig

  8. Causes • Ignorant towards Critical Indicators: • Failure to recognise initial ominous signs etc. a pipe called a riser- losing fluid • BP ignored recommendations byHalliburtonfor morecentralizers(Claimed that the lack of centralizers probably did not affect the cement) • Flow of gas into the engine rooms through ventilation system created potential for ignitionShould have redirected the flow of flammable gas

  9. Causes • Insufficient Training: • Workers interpret pressure test wrongly  Caused reports sent to be inaccurate • Violation of Federal Regulations: • Required to: (a) Operate in safe manner (b) Take Measures to contain oil and gas (c) Conduct Reliable tests of well pressures (d) Notify of changes in well drilling plans

  10. Causes • "The evidence show that BP put profits before people, profits before safety and profits before the environment," -Justice Department attorney Mike Underhill

  11. Impacts-Economical • Commercial and recreational fishing was affected from Mississippi to Florida • Tourism: Important to Gulf Coast states Affected by cancelled vacations • Jobs in the fishing, tourism and even oil industry are in jeopardy • Shrimp, crab and oyster farmers and harvesters now only have contaminated seas and estuaries left • 2010-2013 Costs: Gulf Coast States  USD23 billion

  12. Impacts-Social and Political • Symptoms of nausea, dehydration, dizziness, headaches, chest pains and vomiting • The spill and related clean up released chemicals into the environment • Full health impact on the reason may not be known for many years. • BP describes itself as a “changed company” with a shattered reputation • BP lost its CEO, costed billions of dollars

  13. Impacts-Environmental 1 • Oil washed up on shores, into wildlife refuges, beaches, and seafood grounds • 16,000 total miles of coastline have been affected, including the coasts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida

  14. Impacts-Environmental 1 • Many of the areas have unacceptable levels of contamination • Over 8,000 animals (birds, turtles, mammals) were reported dead just 6 months after the spill, including many that are already on the endangered species list

  15. Impacts-Environmental 2 • Signs of an oil-and-dispersantmix were found under the shells of tiny blue crab larvae • Some types of spiders and otherinsects became far less numerous • Migratory birds carried chemicals from the spill as far as Minnesota (From the Gulf of Mexico) • Chronic exposure to toxic materials caused all sorts of problems with immune deficiencies and in somecases even deformities

  16. Map of Area Affected

  17. Preventive measures • Searching for risks of oil spills +Assess situation  Develop appropriate oil spill response and crisis management plans • Developed oil spill modelling systems and capabilities

  18. Preventive measures • Enhancing the environmental and socio-economic data required in the models: Help inform response planning • Conducting staff training in related regions

  19. Clean-up measures • Using dispersants- Breaks down oil into smaller structures • Once oil in the sea is broken down to smaller droplets Microbes will consume these smaller droplets of oil • Danger: Absorbed by marine life, into food chain.

  20. Clean-up measures • Containment and skimming: Buoyant booms floating and web below surface • Keep oil from spreading out/ contaminating further • Easier to skim oil from surfaceBoats suck/scoop oil, into containment tanks

  21. Preventive measures • Searching for risks of oil spills +Assess situation  Develop appropriate oil spill response and crisis management plans • Developed oil spill modelling systems and capabilities

  22. Clean-up measures • Using magnets- oil will be pumped onto a boat treatment facility • Magnetic nanoparticles will be exposed to the oil which will then stick to the oil • Filtration- With help of magnets to separate oil and water

  23. Clean-up measures • Biological Agents: (Reached shore)Fertilisers spread over shoreline (etc. Phosphorus/Nitrogen) • Foster microorganism growth • Break down oil into natural components

  24. Clean-up measures • Sorbents:Large sponges absorb oil from water • In-situ Burning:Setting oil on fire • More effective But produces large amount of toxic gas X Near coastal settlement area

  25. Video: The BP Oil Spill • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lY-PikuXTYY

  26. Bibliography • http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle800.do?categoryId=9048964&contentId=7083298 • http://www.bp.com/sectiongenericarticle800.do?categoryId=9048922&contentId=7082610 • http://edition.cnn.com/2012/09/21/tech/oil-spill-magnets • http://www.nola.com/news/gulf-oil-spill/index.ssf/2013/04/as_third_anniversary_of_bp_oil.html • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10309001 • http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-02-26/bp-profit-push-root-cause-of-gulf-spill-witness-says.html • http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/12/science/earth/12spill.html

  27. Bibliography • http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/apr/20/deepwater-horizon-key-questions-answered • http://www.bp.com/genericarticle.do?categoryId=2012968&contentId=7064893 • http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/15/science/earth/15spill.html?_r=0 • http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-21548117 • http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/bp-oil-spill-trial-begins-article-1.1272679 • http://www.dosomething.org/tipsandtools/11-facts-about-bp-oil-spill • http://www.wwltv.com/news/local/Three-years-after-BP-oil-spill-new-report-rates-health-of-Gulf-of-Mexico-ecosystem-202213361.html • http://articles.latimes.com/2013/feb/25/nation/la-na-bp-trial-20130226

  28. ===THE END=== Thank You!! ::D <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3 <3