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Splash Screen

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  1. Splash Screen

  2. Chapter Introduction Section 1The First Amendment Section 2Other Guarantees in the Bill of Rights Section 3Extending the Bill of Rights Section 4The Civil Rights Struggle Review to Learn Chapter Assessment Contents Click on a hyperlink to view the corresponding slides.

  3. Chapter Overview Chapter Intro 1 In Chapter 4 you examine the Bill of Rights. Section 1 identifies freedoms guaranteed by the First Amendment. Section 2 explains the other nine amendments. Section 3 discusses how later amendments extended freedoms to minorities. Section 4 describes the civil rights movement.

  4. Chapter Objectives Chapter Intro 2 After studying this chapter, you will be able to: • Describe First Amendment freedoms. • Explain the rights listed in the entire Bill of Rights. • Examine how minority groups are protected by the Bill of Rights. • Describe the civil rights movement. Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information.

  5. Chapter Intro 3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

  6. End of Intro Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

  7. Guide to Reading Main Idea Section 1-1 Soon after ratification of the Constitution, the First Amendment was added to guarantee basic freedoms essential to American democracy. Key Terms • civil liberties • censorship • petition • slander • libel Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  8. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Section 1-2 Analyzing Information As you read, list in a chart like the one on page 98 of your textbook the freedoms guaranteed by the First Amendment, along with the limitations to those freedoms. Read to Learn • How does the First Amendment protect five basic freedoms? • What are the limits to First Amendment freedoms? Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  9. Thomas Jefferson Section 1-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

  10. First Amendment Freedoms Section 1-4 • The Bill of Rights, added in 1791, protects our civilliberties–the freedoms we have to think and act without government interference or fear of unfair treatment. • The First Amendment protects five basic freedoms: religion, speech, press, assembly, and to petition the government. • Congress may not establish an official religion, favor one religion over another, or treat people differently because of their beliefs. • People may practice their faith as they wish. (pages 98–100) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  11. First Amendment Freedoms (cont.) Section 1-5 • In some countries, people can be jailed for criticizing the government or voicing unpopular ideas. • We can say what we want, in public or in private, without fear of punishment. • Freedom of speech includes conversations, radio, and TV. • It also protects forms of expression other than the spoken word, such as clothing. (pages 98–100) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  12. First Amendment Freedoms (cont.) Section 1-6 • We may express ourselves freely in print and other media. • The government cannot practice censorship–it cannot ban printed materials or films because they contain offensive ideas or ban information before it is published or broadcast. (pages 98–100) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  13. First Amendment Freedoms (cont.) Section 1-7 • We may gather in groups for any reason, as long as the assemblies are peaceful. • Governments can make rules about when and where activities can be held but cannot ban them. • We may freely join clubs, political parties, unions, and other organizations. • We have the right to petition the government. • A petition is a formal request. • We can complain or express ideas by writing to our elected representatives. (pages 98–100) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  14. First Amendment Freedoms (cont.) Section 1-8 What forms of expression other than the spoken word are protected by freedom of speech? Freedom of speech protects forms of expression such as Internet communication, art, music, and even clothing. (pages 98–100) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  15. Limits to First Amendment Freedoms Section 1-9 • The Supreme Court has decided that First Amendment freedoms may be limited to protect safety and security. • You may not provoke a riot. • You may not speak or write in a way that leads to criminal activities or efforts to overthrow the government. (page 101) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  16. Limits to First Amendment Freedoms (cont.) Section 1-10 • You should use civil liberties responsibly and not interfere with the rights of others. • You may criticize government officials but not spread lies that harm a person’s reputation. • Doing so is a crime called slander if the lies are spoken and libel if they are printed. • Unlimited freedom is not possible in a society. • The rights of one individual must be balanced against the rights of others and of the community. (page 101) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  17. Limits to First Amendment Freedoms (cont.) Section 1-11 Give some examples in which exercising freedom of speech might interfere with the rights of others. You may talk with your friends in the street, but you must not block traffic. You may campaign for causes but not disturb your neighbors with blaring loudspeaker broadcasts. You may criticize government officials but not spread lies. (page 101) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  18. Checking for Understanding Section 1-12 Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. C __ 1. a formal request for government action __ 2. spoken untruths that are harmful to someone’s reputation __ 3. freedom to think and act without government interference or fear of unfair legal treatment __ 4. written untruths that are harmful to someone’s reputation __ 5. the banning of printed materials or films due to alarming or offensive ideas A. civil liberties B. censorship C. petition D. slander E. libel D A E B Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answers.

  19. Checking for Understanding(cont.) Section 1-13 Infer Besides the spoken word, “speech” refers to what other forms of expression? It refers to art, music, clothing, and the Internet. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  20. Checking for Understanding(cont.) Section 1-14 Identify What are the limits to First Amendment freedoms? Give an example of a limit to a First Amendment right. Freedoms cannot endanger the government or interfere with others’ rights. Slander or libel are not protected by the First Amendment. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  21. Critical Thinking Section 1-15 Drawing Conclusions Which First Amendment right do you think is the most important? Possible answer: Freedom of the press to ensure that citizens are informed is the most important First Amendment right. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  22. Analyzing Visuals Section 1-16 Describe Reexamine the photos on page 100 of your textbook. How do these images reflect First Amendment rights? The images represent freedom of religion. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  23. Close Section 1-17 Are you willing to have letters and e-mails censored by government agencies to help prevent terrorist attacks? Freedom of speech is at issue here. Explain your position.

  24. End of Section 1 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

  25. Guide to Reading Main Idea Section 2-1 In addition to the important civil liberties protected by the First Amendment, the other nine amendments in the Bill of Rights guarantee the right to fair legal treatment, as well as other freedoms. Key Terms • search warrant • due process • eminent domain • bail • indictment • grand jury • double jeopardy Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  26. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Section 2-2 Categorizing InformationAs you read, list the rights guaranteed by Amendments 2–10 of the Bill of Rights in a web diagram like the one on page 103 of your textbook. Read to Learn • How does the Bill of Rights protect the rights of the accused? • What other rights and freedoms are guaranteed by the Bill of Rights? Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  27. Are school lockers private? Section 2-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

  28. Protecting the Rights of the Accused Section 2-4 • The Fourth, Fifth, Sixth, and Eighth Amendments protect the rights of accused people. • The Fourth Amendment protects against unreasonable searches and seizures. • If police believe you have committed a crime, they can ask a judge for a searchwarrant–a court order allowing law enforcement officials to search a suspect’s home or business and take evidence. • Search warrants are granted only with good cause. (pages 103–106) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  29. Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.) Section 2-5 • The Fifth Amendment states that no one can be put on trial for a serious federal crime without an indictment–a formal charge by a group of citizens called a grandjury, who review the evidence. • An indictment does not mean guilt–it indicates only that the person may have committed a crime. • The Fifth Amendment also protects against doublejeopardy. • Someone tried and judged not guilty may not be put on trial again for the same crime. (pages 103–106) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  30. Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.) Section 2-6 • The Fifth Amendment protects an accused person’s right to remain silent. • This prevents a person from being threatened or tortured into a confession. • The Fifth Amendment states that no one may be denied life, liberty, or property without dueprocess, or the use of established legal procedures. • The Fifth Amendment limits eminentdomain–the right of government to take private property (usually land) for public use. (pages 103–106) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  31. Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.) Section 2-7 • The Sixth Amendment requires accused people to be told the charges against them and guarantees a trial by jury unless the accused chooses a judge instead. • Trials must be speedy and public with impartial jurors. • Accused people have a right to hear and question witnesses against them and call witnesses in their own defense. • Accused people are entitled to a lawyer. (pages 103–106) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  32. Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.) Section 2-8 • Before trial, the accused may stay in jail or pay bail, a security deposit. • Bail is returned if the person comes to court for trial but is forfeited if the person fails to appear. • The Eighth Amendment forbids excessive bail and excessive fines. • It also forbids cruel and unusual punishment. • Punishment must fit the severity of the crime. (pages 103–106) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  33. Protecting the Rights of the Accused (cont.) Section 2-9 What is the function of a grand jury? A grand jury reviews evidence against the accused. If the jury judges from the evidence that the accused may have committed a crime, it issues an indictment. This process protects people from being brought to trial hastily and perhaps needlessly. (pages 103–106) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  34. Protecting Other Rights Section 2-10 • The Second Amendment is often debated. • Some believe it only allows states to keep an armed militia, or local army. • Others believe it guarantees the right of all citizens to “keep and bear arms.” • The courts have generally ruled that government can pass laws to control, but not prevent, the possession of weapons. • The Third Amendment says that soldiers may not move into private homes without the owners’ consent, as British soldiers had done in colonial times. (pages 106–107) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  35. Protecting Other Rights (cont.) Section 2-11 • The Seventh Amendment concerns civil cases–lawsuits involving disagreements among people rather than crimes. • It guarantees the right to a jury trial in civil cases involving more than $20. • It does not require a jury trial, however. • The Ninth Amendment says that citizens have other rights beyond those listed in the Constitution. (pages 106–107) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  36. Protecting Other Rights (cont.) Section 2-12 • The Tenth Amendment says that any powers the Constitution does not specifically give to the national government are reserved to the states or to the people. • This prevents Congress and the president from becoming too strong. • They have only the powers the people give them. (pages 106–107) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  37. Protecting Other Rights (cont.) Section 2-13 What gives us the right to privacy in our homes and freedom from government interference in our personal choices? The Constitution does not mention privacy. However, the Ninth Amendment says that we have rights beyond those listed in the Constitution. The Supreme Court has drawn on the First, Fourth, and Fifth Amendments to uphold the right to privacy. (pages 106–107) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  38. Checking for Understanding Section 2-14 Define Match the terms on the right with their definitions on the left. D __ 1. putting someone on trial for a crime of which he or she was previously acquitted __ 2. a group of citizens that decides whether there is sufficient evidence to accuse someone of a crime __ 3. following established legal procedures __ 4. a court order allowing law enforcement officers to search a suspect’s home or business and take specific items as evidence __ 5. a formal charge by a grand jury A. search warrant B. indictment C. grand jury D. double jeopardy E. due process C E A B Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answers.

  39. Checking for Understanding(cont.) Section 2-15 Explain When can law enforcement officers search a suspect’s house? They can search a suspect’s house when they have a search warrant. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  40. Checking for Understanding(cont.) Section 2-16 Identify What current controversial issue is tied to the Eighth Amendment’s prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment? The death penalty is a controversial issue tied to the Eighth Amendment. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  41. Critical Thinking Section 2-17 Drawing Conclusions Which of the first 10 amendments do you think is the most important? Why? Possible answers: the Fifth Amendment because it guarantees due process, or the First Amendment because it guarantees freedom of religion Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  42. Analyzing Visuals Section 2-18 Conclude Review the chart that lists the rights of persons accused of crimes on page 104 of your textbook. What is the role of the grand jury in the trial process? The Fifth Amendment requires an indictment by a grand jury before an accused person can be tried. Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the answer.

  43. Close Section 2-19 Explain whether you agree or disagree with the following statement: Randomly searching lockers is a constitutional way to prevent illegal drug use in schools.

  44. End of Section 2 Click the mouse button to return to the Contents slide.

  45. Guide to Reading Main Idea Section 3-1 The amendments adopted after the Bill of Rights extended liberties and voting rights to African Americans, women, and other minority groups. Key Terms • suffrage • poll tax Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  46. Guide to Reading (cont.) Reading Strategy Section 3-2 Explaining Information As you read, complete a graphic organizer like the one on page 109 of your textbook to explain the Civil War amendments. Read to Learn • How were the Civil War amendments intended to extend civil liberties to African Americans? • How did the Seventeenth, Nineteenth, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth, and Twenty-sixth Amendments extend voting rights in the United States? Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  47. William Lloyd Garrison Section 3-3 Click the Speaker button to replay the audio.

  48. Protecting All Americans Section 3-4 • At first, the Bill of Rights applied only to adult white males. • It also applied only to the national government, not to state or local governments. • Later amendments and court rulings made the Bill of Rights apply to all people and all levels of government. • The Civil War amendments–the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth–extended civil liberties to African Americans. (pages 109–112) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  49. Protecting All Americans (cont.) Section 3-5 • The Thirteenth Amendment outlawed slavery, freeing thousands of African Americans. • After the Civil War, many Southern states passed “black codes” that limited the rights of African Americans. • The Fourteenth Amendment remedied this situation by defining citizens as anyone born or naturalized in the United States, which included African Americans. • It required all states to grant citizens equal protection of the laws. (pages 109–112) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.

  50. Protecting All Americans (cont.) Section 3-6 • The Fourteenth Amendment also nationalized the Bill of Rights by forbidding state governments from interfering with the rights of citizens. • The Supreme Court upheld this interpretation of the amendment in Gitlow v. New York. (pages 109–112) Click the mouse button or press theSpace Bar to display the information.