Part of Speech Grammar and Vocabulary Ⅰ April 15, 2011
English words are categorized into eight groups: Noun Verb Adjective Adverb Conjunction Pronoun Preposition Interjection Part of Speech
Noun • A word which is the name of someone or something • “Jack”, “table”, and “discomfort” are nouns
Verb • A kind of word which shows what a person or thing is doing or the state it is in or what is happening to it • Words like “eat” and “feel” are verbs
Adjective • A kind of word which names a quality • In a sentence “This is a heavy box”, “heavy” is an adjective
Adverb • A word used with verb, adjective, or another adverb telling how, when, and where • Jane carefully (→how) washed her skirt yesterday (→when) and hung it here (→where)
Conjunction • Word used for joining other words or statements • “Jack and Jill went up a hill” • We couldn’t drink the milk because it was too hot
Pronoun • Word used in place of / in stead of a noun • Words like “I,” “you,” “she,” “me,” and “them” are pronouns
Preposition • Word placed before noun or pronoun to make clear its relation, especially of direction, to another word (in, to, at, etc.)
Interjection • Words used as cry to make feelings clear • “Oh, what a surprise!” • “Ah, that’s wonderful!”
Matching Quiz • Web-based Exercise
Exercise 2 (p.2) • What kind of part of speech are the following underlined words?
(1) This watchis cheaper than that one. ⇒noun (2) Is this story so funny? ⇒ adjective
(3) Who studies English hardest? ⇒ verb (4) I must tell you thatyou are wrong. ⇒ conjunction
(5) Do your work as earnestly as possible. ⇒ adverb (6) The subway station is at the next corner. ⇒ preposition
(7) “Hi, Mike. How are you?” “Oh, hi, Sue. I’m fine, thank you.” ⇒ interjection (8) Let me introduce myself. My name is Michael Smith. ⇒ pronoun
Phrase • A group of words not a sentence, which we can understand. In the sentence: The book is on the table. – “on the table” is a phrase.
Exercise 3 (pp.2-3) • Complete the following sentences using the words in the list (p.3)
(1) Parents must ( ) their children all the time. ⇒ take care of (2) We ( ) decide which way to go. ⇒ had to
(3) You can see a large park ( ), can’t you? ⇒ over there (4) People keep cats ( ). ⇒ to catch mice
(5) ( ) produce electricity. ⇒ Power stations (6) British and American people speak English ( ). ⇒ rather differently
For the next class… • Check what kind of suffixes the following word endings are (p.1).
In the next class… • Derivation (pp.3-4) • Vocabulary (p.85)