Chapter 4: The Growing Power of Western Europe AP European History 2012-2013
Chapter 4, Section 17 – “The Grand Monarqueand the Balance of Power”
Be sure to know the significance of the following people: Louis XIV William of Orange Charles II
Be sure to know the significance of the following terms: Universal monarchy balance of power
How does the story of Charles II of Spain reveal some of the problems of a monarchial system?
Be sure to know the significance of the following people: William the Silent Hugo Grotius Baruch Spinoza Rembrandt Vermeer Hals Leeuwenhoek
Be sure to know the significance of the following terms: House of Orange United Provinces Bank of Amsterdam
Dutch West IndiaCompany, 1621 Dutch East India Company, 1602
Astronomical Pioneer:Christiaan Huygens • Explanation of Saturn’s rings. • Wave theory of light.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek: The Microscope & the Discovery of Micro-Organisms
The Dutch Federation REGENTS - provincial level - held virtually all the power - strong advocates of local independence STADHOLDER - States General representative from each province - responsible for defense and order STATES GENERAL - federal assembly - foreign affairs (war) - all issues had to be referred to the local Estates
Examine Vermeer’s The Geographer from page 153 in your textbook. How does this show the Dutch as a world power? What attitudes are demonstrated?
Is religious toleration a necessary condition for cultural efflorescence? Why/why not?
Pride’s Purge, 1648 • Cromwell purges the House of Commons of moderates [anyone who isn’t anti-monarchy]. • The results is the “Rump” Parliament.
Cromwell—Lord Protector or King?? • England longs for an end to martial law! • Cromwell dies in 1658 and his son, Richard, takes over, but is weak and lasts for only two years.
Why are civil wars, it seems, so common in the forging of the modern nation-states?
Read “The Powers of the Monarch in England” by James I (Western Civilization page 49). How does James justify the vast powers he feels he should rightly have as king?
Read “The Powers of Parliament in England” by the House of Commons (Western Civilization page 50). What are the powers which the House of Commons and the king disagree on? What claims do both sides use to justify their claims?
Chapter 4, Section 20 – “Britain: the Triumph of Parliament”
Be sure to know the significance of the following people: Charles II: James II: William III:
Be sure to know the significance of the following terms: • Test Act: required all office holders to be members of the Church of England • Declaration of Indulgence: issued by Charles II to provide religious freedom to Dissenters • Dissenters: refused to accept the Church of England • Battle of the Boyne: scene of the defeat of James II forces • Bill of Rights: set conditions for coexistence between king and parliament • Toleration Act: allowed religious freedom to dissenters • Act of Settlement: excluded Catholics from the throne
Be sure to know the significance of the following terms: • Act of Union: created the United Kingdom between England and Scotland • Bank of England: 1694 – provided funding to William III to wage war on France • Irish penal code: code of laws restricting many rights of Irish Catholics • “Squirearchy”: political power stemming from the class of landed aristocrats • “gentlemen”: men of strong families or higher class, who ruled Britain through their representation in the parliament • Glorious Revolution: name given to the settlement of 1688-1689
How did the Restoration solve – and not solve – the religious and political conflicts? a. Under Charles II: generally placid, aristocrats paid taxes for political powerb. Religious conflict: continued, Anglican dissenters banned from positions of power c. Charles II and Louis XIV: Charles a supporter of Louis, worked together to wage war on Dutch, Charles appeared to support Catholicism (which was seen as a threat)d. Upon Charles II’s death: James became king (a Catholic); Whigs (opposed Stuart line) and Tories (supported Stuart line); both parties lost interest in James II and offered the crown to his daughter Mary and her husband, William of Orange (III)e. William III’s interests: to promote Dutch interests and weaken France; William III supported by English population which wanted to prevent restoration of royal absolutism
English Bill of Rights  • It settled all of the major issues between King & Parliament. • It served as a model for the U. S. Bill of Rights. • It also formed a base for the steady expansion of civil liberties in the 18c and early 19c in England.
How did the Restoration solve – and not solve – the religious and political conflicts?f. Bill of Rights: 1689; struck balance between king & parliament; eliminated royal absolutist powers • g. Act of Settlement: excluded Catholics from the throne; descendants of James II became known as “Pretenders” • h. United Kingdom: created by Act of Union; united England and Scotland; meant to prevent Scottish support of Stuart line (Scottish family) • i. Ireland: increased persecution against Irish Catholics • j. Bank of England: 1694; means of lending William III money to pay for war against French; wealthy were willing to make loans in exchange for power • k. Glorious Revolution: name given to the settlement of 1688-1689; established civil rights, parliamentary power over monarchy, and rule of law in England
Read “Leviathan: Political Order and Political Theory” by Thomas Hobbes (Western Civilization pages 53-55). Why do men form commonwealths and give power to the sovereign? How does Hobbes’ argument compare with that of James I? Why might the House of Commons and monarch criticize Hobbes’ argument?
Chapter 4, Section 21 – “The France of Louis XIV 1643-1715: The Triumph of Absolutism”