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The Red Imported Fire Ant in California

The Red Imported Fire Ant in California

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The Red Imported Fire Ant in California

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  1. The Red Imported Fire Ant in California Dr. Les Greenberg University of California, Riverside

  2. Origin of Imported Fire Ants • South America: Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina

  3. U.S. Introduction • Introduction to Mobile, Alabama, between 1930-1940 • Probably arrived in ship ballast • From there, spread outward to the Southeast and West

  4. Fire ant quarantine

  5. Potential spread of fire ants • Originally 10° F. isothermal line; now at 0° F. • Limiting factor of moisture • Adaptation to man-made environment

  6. U. S. Expansion

  7. Mating

  8. Fire Ant Dispersal

  9. Stinging and Pustule Formation

  10. Transformers Shorted

  11. Infested Areas of Southern California

  12. Locating Infestations • Visual inspection • Luncheon meat • Corn chips

  13. Nurseries in Trabuco Canyon

  14. Subterranean Trail Under Plastic

  15. Flower beds in Los Alamitos

  16. Coachella Valley Golf Courses

  17. Mounds on Mowed Grass

  18. Mound at Sprinkler

  19. Exit holes from underground foraging trails on putting green

  20. Cleveland National Forest

  21. 2500 ft

  22. WetlandsRancho Santa Margarita

  23. Infested Areas of the Central Valley

  24. Almond Groves in Central Valley

  25. Biological Control Agents • Phorid flies: decapitating flies • Protozoan parasites: Thelohania • Other species of ants

  26. Phorid Flies

  27. Phorid Flies (Decapitating Flies)

  28. Phorid Flies

  29. Phorid Fly Release

  30. Phorid Fly Releases

  31. Phorid Fly Releases • Between 1996 and 2002 the decapitating fly, Pseudacteon tricuspis, was released at 56 sites in the southeastern United States • Most releases have been made by the USDA-ARS, CMAVE, Gainesville, FL ( 32 sites) and the University of Texas, Austin (15 sites).

  32. Phorid Fly Releases • Overwintering populations of flies were successfully established at 19 sites in 6 states (AL-3, FL- 5, LA-3, MS-1, SC-2, TX-5).

  33. Phorid Fly Expansion in Florida

  34. Thelohania solenopsae, a microsporidian intracellular parasite • The most common fire ant pathogen in Brazil • It was discovered in the US in 1998 (FL, TX, MS, OK). • Decreases ant’s longevity and reduces colony size

  35. Inoculating Mound with Thelohania

  36. Insecticide Runoff from Treated Houses

  37. Treatments 2007 • Treatments used • 3 gals fipronil spray perimeter • 1 gal fipronil spot • 3 gals bifenthrin spray • Combination of fipronil spray and bifenthrin granules • Bait stations with imidacloprid

  38. Data From a Typical House • Lawn area measured • Water meter recorded • Runoff estimated • Sprinkler locations mapped • Collection site noted • Time that irrigation is on

  39. Water collection dam

  40. Dam placement at curb • 4-in styrofoam cut into U-shape • Sand bags on styrofoam • Styrofoam and sand bags put inside disposable plastic bags

  41. Sample collection

  42. 60-ml aquatic pipette

  43. Volumetric flow rate (Q), the volume of fluid which passes through a given volume per unit time • Q = A x v, where • A = area (depth and width of water stream) • v = uniform average velocity of water (how long it takes to flow a known distance) • Q*time - gives us an estimate of total water runoff

  44. Sample processing • One liter sample collected from one bank of sprinklers per house • Sample stored at 40C • Sample analyzed at laboratory of Dr. Jay Gan in environmental sciences, UC Riverside

  45. Schedule 2007 • Pretreatment ant evaluations and water samples collected in June • Post-treatment ant evaluations done at 1,2,4,and 8 weeks • Post-treatment water samples collected at 1, 4, and 8 weeks