It is best to think of Indians as “peoples” or “cultures” rather than as “tribes”. Not all Indians who had the same culture belonged to the same tribe. In fact, some Indians did not belong to tribes. Instead they lived in small groups or bands.
CADDO • LOCATION • The Caddoes were part of a larger culture known as the Mississippian or Mound Builder Culture. • Caddoes first moved into the PineyWoods during the Late Prehistoric period. • East Texas • Rich soil and plenty of rainfall
CADDO • BLUE
CADDO • Housing: • Caddo houses were cone shaped buildings of poles covered with cane, grass, & mud • Sturdy, beehive shaped houses • Small hole in the top for fires • More than one family
CADDO • Food Source/Daily Life: • They fished and hunted deer and small animals (rabbit). Crops were more important in their diet than meat and fish.Major crops included corn, beans, squash, and sunflower seeds. • Sometimes buffalo
CADDO • Appearance: • Caddoes made most of their clothing from deerskin, which they tanned a deep black. They wore mostly skirts and leggings • Men and women tattooed streaks on their faces and plant and animal designs on their bodies.
CADDO • Trading: • They traded beautiful clay pottery & hunting bows, they received shells from the Gulf Coast, turquoise from the Southwest, copper from the Great Lakes region. Skilled workers used these trade goods and made useful & decorative objects. The fact that Caddoes had such specialized craft workers shows how advanced their culture was.
CADDOfacts • They were organized into 3 confederacies or alliances of people or groups that unite for a common purpose. • The Caddoes had the most advanced culture of all Texas Indians. Even in prehistoric times, they settled in villages, lived and farmed in small clearings in the forest. • Men helped the women with crops • Built mounds for burial and worship
ATAKAPAN • Location/Landforms: • South of the Caddoeslived Indians who spoke a language called Atakapan. The lived in five bands or small tribes spread across the coastal plains from Louisiana to Galveston Bay. • Coastal Area • Marshland
ATAKAPAN • ORANGE
ATAKAPAN • Housing: • Atakapan houses were cone shaped buildings of • Smaller than Caddo and portable like an umbrella
ATAKAPAN • Food Source: • Fish, sea life, deer, bear, bird, shark, and alligator (sea food)
ATAKAPAN • Appearance: • Short and stocky
ATAKAPAN facts: • Tanned animals with deer brains(French fought over these hides) • Nomadic
WICHITA • LOCATION: • For protection, villages joined together to create three tribes- Tawakonis, Wacos, and Wichitas. • West of Caddo • Moved along the Red River and Brazos River • Rich, sandy soil
WICHITA • GREEN
WICHITA • Housing: • Clay floors • Dug moats around the houses • Look much like the beehive Caddo houses • “Spirit” door • Tipis when hunting buffalo for the skins
WICHITA • Food Source: • The Wichita were farmers who tended large fields of corn, pumpkins, squash, melons, beans, and groves of plum trees. • After the fall harvest, entire bandsleft their homes and spent the winter hunting buffalo. During these months they lived in tipis. A tipi is a cone-shaped tent made of poles covered with animal skins. In the springtime the bands returned to villages and planted crops again. • The Wichita would make pemmican (jerky) out of the buffalo.
WICHITA • Appearance: • The Wichita people, were shorter & darker then most other Texas Indians. Men had tattoos around their eyes “raccoon eyes.” Women tattooed their faces & bodies w/zigzag lines, circles, & triangles
WICHITA • Facts: • Lakes and cities named for them • Made lots of things from pumpkin (ropes, baskets, etc.) • Farmers and Hunters
COAHUILTECANS • PINK
COAHUILTECANS • Location/Landforms: • Southwest Plains and the Rio Grande area toward Northern Mexico. Bottom part of Texas. They lived in hundreds of independent bands. • Mesquite thickets, desert, scattered grasslands, and cactus
COAHUILTECANS • Housing: • Coahuiltecans lived in dome-shapedhuts made by cutting and bending young trees and covered them with reed mats and animal hides. They could quickly roll up the mats and hides, place on their backs to carry, and move to the next camp.
COAHUILTECANS • Food Source: • The Coahuiltecans were hunter-gatherers. They ate snakes, lizards, armadillos, worms, snails, spiders, and insects (ants). • With meat in short supply, plants formed the major part of the Coahuiltecansdiet. Women and children gathered leaves, cactus tuna (nopalitos), fruits, mesquite beans (very sweet), and nuts. • They also hunted deer, javalinas, and rabbit
COAHUILTECANS • APPEARANCE: • Yucca sandals • Rabbit skin shawls • Long, loin cloths
COAHUILTECANS • FACTS: • The most primitive or least advanced tribe of all the Texas’ tribes • Nomadic • Had an ambush technique and would then run for days • Would use a burning torch to attract fish (night)
KARANKAWA • PURPLE
KARANKAWAS • Location/Landforms: • The Karankawa Indians lived along the Gulf Coast • Galveston Bay to Corpus Christi • Marshland • Goose Island Grove
KARANKAWAS • Housing: • Karankawa houses held about eight people and were easy to move. • Small poles with mats of leaves, grass and palm leaves • Portable like and umbrella
KARANKAWAS • Food Source: • They survived by fishing in coastal bays and by hunting and gathering wild plants near the coast. • Fish/shellfish • Wild rice • Alligator • Water plants • Deer, bear, and bird • sharks
KARANKAWAS • Appearance: • Karankawas were taller than most Texas Indians. The average man was about six feet tall. Both men and women painted their bodies with red clay or charcoal, and the men pierced their lower lips and chests with small pieces of cane. They wore very little clothing. The women wore clothes made of deer skin or Spanish moss.
KARANKAWAS • FACTS: • Nomadic • Used alligator grease for insect repellant • Pottery was waterproofed with natural asphalt • Dugout canoes • Special ceremony dance (mitoks)
TONKAWAS • DARK GREEN
TONKAWAS • The Tonkawa were a group of independent bands. At first they lived on the Edwards Pleateau west of present-day Austin & San Antonio. • In the 1600’s and 1700’s, the Apaches and Comanches moved into the Tonkawas’ lands. They pushed the Tonkawasaway from the Edwards Plateau and onto the Balcones Escarpment. • Central Texas. • Treeless areas
TONKAWAS • HOUSING • Caves of limestone • Tipis
TONKAWAS • Food Source: • Before other groups pushed them off their land, the Tonkawashunted buffalo and small game. Buffalo was their main source of food and materials for making clothes and tools. Once they had horses, the Tonkawastried to move to the plains. The Apaches and Comanches prevented this. • Instead the Tonkawas were pushed east, where even fewer buffalo lived. There the Tonkawas became hunters and gatherers. Brush and grass replaced buffalo hides as covering for their tipis. The plant foods they gathered included roots, seeds, fruit, acorns, and pecans. Their meat came from rabbits, skunks, rats, rattlesnakes, and land turtles instead of buffalo.
TONKAWAS • FACTS: • Nomadic • Religion centered around hunting prayers • Women set-up the camps • Funerals have vision quests
The Diet of the plains peoples • Buffalo • Deer • Corn • Beans • Pumpkins • Watermelons
APACHES • JUMANO BLUE (took over the area)
APACHES • Locations/Landforms: • Around A.D. 1000, a Native American people moved south from the present-day Canada across the Great Plains. They posed a threat to the people who already lived on the land. In order to survive, these newcomers became fierce fighters. • “Apache” comes from the Zuni word apachu, which means “enemy”. • Two of the Apache tribes, the Lipans and Mescaleros, were very important to Texas history.
APACHES • Housing/Food Source: • The Lipans1st appeared in the Texas Panhandle in the 1500’s. They lived as independent bands. The Lipans wore clothes made of deerskin. To keep warm in the winter, they wrapped themselves in buffalo hide robes. Buffalo hides also covered their tipis. • The Lipanshunted buffalo and other animals and sometimes farmed. During spring and summer they lived in small villages where the women planted and harvested crops of corn, beans, pumpkins, and watermelons. In the fall and winter they moved about, following buffalo. • The Mescaleros were among the Apache tribes that settled in New Mexico. Their lands stretched from present-day El Paso to the Pecos River. Unlike the Lipans, the Mescaleros were a hunting and gathering people.
The homes of the plains peoples • Tipis, also known as Teepees
COMANCHES • Location/Landforms: • The 1stComanches lived in the northern Rocky Mountains in what is now Wyoming. They were poor hunter gatherers and their environment offered little food. After they acquired horses from the Spanish they left the mountains to hunt buffalo. They became expert riders. • They first appeared in New Mexico and the Texas Panhandle in the early 1700’s. Over time, at least 13 bands of Comanche roamed the plains. Each band had a chief with limited power. He could act only with the approval of the band’s council. All adult males were members of the council. The entire council had to agree for decisions to take effect.
COMANCHES • Food Source: • The Comanchesentire way of life depended on the buffalo. The animals provided clothing, shelter, and most of their food. • The Comanches were nomads: people who wander from place to place in search of food.
COMANCHES • Housing: • Like other Plains Indians, the Comanches lived in tipis.