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  1. Strict- Loose- 2. PoliticalParty! Pres more power = State or federal gov’t?

  2. Lou Gehrig’s Farewell Speech • Video

  3. Washington’s Farwell Address 1 • 1796 • Washington, A. Hamilton, J. Madison • Tired of public life • “I anticipate…the sweet enjoyment…of good laws under a free government, the ever favorite object of my heart.” WAR 3 Political differences will weaken the nation/unity 2

  4. Alexander Hamilton 1 • Economist/Lawyer • Secretary of Treasury • Federalist 2. 20 yr. charter Loose interpretation U.S. Constitution

  5. Political differences existed in part based on where and how people lived Political Parties • 1796 • More than one candidate ran for president • Elect people and shape politics • Divisions in political views developed during Washington’s presidency John Adams Thomas Jefferson Federalist Democratic- Republican

  6. USA Patriot Act-after 9/11 Summarize what this cartoon is saying

  7. USA Patriot Act • Americans were feeling ____________ after 9/11 • New powers to Pres (________ branch) -Ex. Increased surveillance of ordinary citizens, surveillance of library records, people jailed without charges, and spying on religious and political organizations without evidence of wrongdoing • Violation of people’s civil liberties? First Amendment

  8. Freedoms Protected by First Amendment • Speech, press, religion

  9. OPINION POLL Questions: American citizens should have the right to criticize their government in time of war. 2. Foreign residents of the United States should have the right to criticize the American government at any time. 3. The American government should have the right to expel or jail foreign residents who criticize it during war time. Agree Disagree

  10. Alien and Sedition Acts 1. • 1798 • Congress (Adams) • “Protect the United States” during the undeclared naval war with France (“Quasi-War”) • Does this violate our first amendment rights? resident or if power to deport 2. Blah, blah, blah, blah, blah 2

  11. If the Sedition Act of 1798 were still in effect, what actions and forms of speech would be prohibited? • How would our society be different?

  12. XYZ Affair Sure, for $250,000 and a loan of $12 million Heck, NO! • 1798 • John Adams • Attempt to create improved relations between United States and France • Protect U.S. shipping Will you help protect our shipping industry? X Y Z Results: Standing Caribbean And eventually… SUCCESS!

  13. Thomas Jefferson 1 2 First Term: Enjoyed prosperity, lower taxes, reduced national debt Ended Presidency with bigger government, expanded military • 1801-1809 • Democratic-Republican Party • Believed in the limited power of federal government (opposed National Bank) • Strict interpretation of the Constitution (once he became President he practiced a loose interpretation of the Constitution) • Dreamt of national unity 3 Did he have the authority to buy foreign lands? Constitution doesn’t say, but he did = _________ interpretation 4 Supreme Court=#1 decisions by other branches 5 Marbury v. Madison

  14. SHR-Elbow Room Louisiana Purchase 1. • Once Spanish territory, a secret treaty passes ownership to France • Territory includes New Orleans (mouth of Mississippi River – significant trade route) west to the Rocky Mountains • October 20, 1803 • $15 million • Thomas Jefferson (sends Robert Livingston and James Monroe) 2x 2. Montana Colorado North Dakota Kansas South Dakota Oklahoma Minnesota Missouri Wyoming Arkansas Nebraska Louisiana Iowa Texas New Mexico 3. to Pacific Ocean 4.

  15. Marbury v Madison 1. • William Marbury • James Madison (secretary of state) • Strengthened the role of the judicial branch • 1803 2. judicial review: power of the Court to declare an act of Congress unconstitutional

  16. Country A-Ryan, Abby, Tyler • Country B-Joe, Courtney, Rebecca

  17. Producing & Postcards • Country A- pencils, papers clips, and paper with printed and decorated rectangles • Country B- papers with printed triangular postcards, single-hole punches, rulers, and yarn • Both-markers, scissors, pencils, and sheets of plain paper *Specialization- occurs when people concentrate their production on fewer kinds of goods and services than they consume

  18. 5 min timer Good quality!!!

  19. What do you think would happen if… • Quality of each product if produced another round? Why? • # of products produced for another round? • Each country wanted both postcards? • Each trades 1 quarter of postcards, how many of each type will Country A have? B?

  20. Count # of products produced

  21. 5 min timer Trade prohibited!

  22. What happened to worldwide productions? Why? • Quality of triangular in Country A vs rectangular in B? • Why couldn’t countries produce second good so it would be exactly like the one imported? • In first round, free trade. How did individuals in both countries benefit? • How did restricting trade affect production of goods in each country and worldwide output?

  23. What happened to the price of a good when trade was restricted? Why?

  24. Protective tariff • Alexander Hamilton • Meant to protect US goods • Promote domestic manufacturing and business (northeast) • * Higher tariffs (taxes) to raise prices of foreign goods in the United States What group of people didn’t like this? What did they do? Foreign or domestic?

  25. Embargo Act • embargo – banning of trade • 1807 – banned trade with all foreign countries • Passed to punish British and French; to protect American merchant ships from attack • Thomas Jefferson 2. 1. vs Results: What region of the United States do you think was impacted most by suspended trade? Limit trade

  26. Embargo or Tariff? • The US taxes all softwood coming into the US from Canada. 2. In 1963, President Kennedy issued sanctions, which prohibited trade with Cuba. Tariff Embargo

  27. War of 1812 N A T I O N A L I S m 5. N A T I V E A M 1. 3. • James Madison • United States vs. Great Britain • 1812-1814 (1815) • Andrew Jackson war hero • Second War of Independence 2. 4. Border disputes

  28. Monroe Doctrine • Attempt to restrain the influence of European nations in newly independent Latin American countries • Protects American interests • Policy warning European powers not to interfere with the Americas • James Monroe (John Q. Adams – Sec. of State) • December 2, 1823 1. Influence 2. US Europe

  29. American System • Ideas to make the United States economically independent from other nations (no need for foreign trade) • Promote national unity • Henry Clay (J.Q. Adams/Jackson) – 1820’s 1. 3. 2.

  30. Midterm Review till 8:40

  31. Players Federalists Antifederalists Alexander Hamilton Roger Sherman George Mason Patrick Henry James Madison Benjamin Franklin George Washington

  32. U.S. ConstitutionWhat concerns (from the A of C) did it address?What are its strengths? • Most power held by national government • Three branches of government • Legislative branch (make laws) • Executive branch (enforce laws) • Judicial branch (interpret laws) • System of checks and balances