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Convoy Operations and TTPs PowerPoint Presentation
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Convoy Operations and TTPs

Convoy Operations and TTPs

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Convoy Operations and TTPs

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  1. Convoy Operations and TTPs Lessons Learned during Operation Iraqi Freedom HHC, Task Force 2-69 Armor

  2. Threat • Unconventional (Irregular) Forces • 1-2% of the Population • Cannot identify until they attack • They want to kill Americans • Looking for soft (easy) targets to attack • Will avoid hard targets • Not seeking his or her own death

  3. Threat (cont.) • They are always watching and assessing every moment of every day • They are intelligent • Know U.S. patches, designators, and equipment • Use this knowledge to adapt their own TTPs

  4. Enemy TTPs • Sniper fire from building • Random fire from building or clusters of buildings • Buildings sometimes (often) near other civilians not involved in the attack • RPG fire against convoys of soft skinned vehicles

  5. Enemy TTPs (cont.) • Explosive Devices • Command detonated on roads, bridges, intersections, overpasses or tunnels (choke points) • Pressure activated on roads in plastic bags or buried • Manually thrown • From same direction vehicles • From overpasses • From side of road • Suicide Bombers • Personnel • Vehicle

  6. Enemy TTPs (cont.) • Disrupt U.S. convoys with vehicles • Prior to attack to slow us down • Civilians block traffic in the road • They know where we need to slow down • Hard Ball Road to Unimproved Surface • Intersections • Linear Ambushes (command executed) • Observers advise ambush • Flares to trigger

  7. Enemy TTPs (cont.) • Small arms and RPG fire generally directed at lead or trail vehicle • RPG usually directed at trail vehicle

  8. Enemy Goals • Stop Your Movement • Isolate Soft Targets From Hard Targets • Kill Americans • Try to break our resolve • Make a political statement

  9. Considerations • Individual discipline at all times • Weapon Orientation • Security is everyone’s business • Security at halts and work sites • Mounted vs. Dismounted OP’s and Security • Vigilance on security and OP’s • 360 degree security during movement, halts and work sites.

  10. Considerations (cont.) • Likely forms of contact • Direct Fire (Sniper, RPG, Ambush) • Indirect Fire (Mortars) • Obstacles (Man Made or Human) • Explosive Devices • Visual Contact • THE ENEMY UNDERSTANDS AND RESPECTS FORCE!

  11. Our TTPs • Convoy Configuration • Support Platoon Leader or Scout Section Leader • Crew Served Weapon (Mounted) • Company Commander (Convoy Commander) • Element • Element Leader • 1SG (Asst. Convoy Commander) • Element • Element Leader • Recovery • Recovery/Maint. OIC/NCOIC (XO, BMO, or BMS) • Rear Security

  12. Our TTPs (cont.) • Distribute crew served weapons throughout the convoy • Heavy toward front and rear • Weapon Orientation • If vehicle has hatch or ring mount, USE IT! • Even if you do not have crew served weapon • TC out of hatch with personal weapon

  13. Our TTPs (cont.) • Uniform Standards at all times • DCU Complete • LBV/E Complete • Flak Jacket/OTV • Helmet • Weapon at the ready

  14. Our TTPs (cont.) • Trail vehicle will provide rear security • M998 or M35 with personnel in the back • Orient weapon systems to the rear • Each vehicle watches the “6” of the vehicle they are following

  15. Our TTPs (cont.) • Actions with a Breakdown • Key leader ID’s breakdown and reports to CO • CO halts or slows convoy based on situation • Key leader remains with breakdown • Recovery moves forward and assesses the situation with breakdown • If mission/tactical situation warrants, continue movement, then key leader becomes responsible for security, recovery, and continued movement to destination

  16. Our TTPs (cont.) • Actions at Short Halt • Halt in column or herringbone based on the situation (typically column in Iraq) • Driver remains in vehicle with engine running • TC dismounts and pulls local security (staggered) • If TC has crew served weapon, stay mounted and stagger orientation with other crew served weapon systems in convoy

  17. Our TTPs (cont.) • Trail Element Pulls Rear Security • When resuming movement, TC re-mounts and maintains movement standards

  18. Our TTPs (cont.) • Actions on Direct Contact • RETURN FIRE - Extremely effective • Continue to move • Do Not Stop!! They want you to do this • If vehicle or personnel are hit, continue to move out of kill sack • Do not be afraid to shoot • Considerations • Surface Danger Zones (SDZs) • 3500+ m max range of 5.56mm • 6000m max range of .50 cal

  19. Our TTPs • Target area - anyone not stopping enemy activity is enabling that activity • This makes returning fire morally right • RAMP principles: • Return Fire with Aimed Fire • Anticipate Attack • Measured Response (Proportionality) • Protect US Lives and Mission Essential Property with deadly force

  20. Our TTPs (cont.) • Indirect Fire/Explosive Devices • Continue to Move • Area is probably targeted by mortars, other explosive devices, or enemy personnel • Look for M203 type grenade launchers, command detonation of devices, etc. • If you ID a target, engage it with accurate and deadly fire

  21. Our TTPs (cont.) • Obstacles (Man made) • ID as far away as possible • Halt outside of kill sack • ID bypass or enemy activity in area • Determine if it is possible to pass thru or bypass • Anticipate and prepare for an attack either way • If you ID enemy, engage with aimed fire • Do Not Breech - Not your mission

  22. Our TTPs (cont.) • Obtacles (Human - Civilian or Protestors) • ID as far away as possible • If no bypass, then short halt • Based on size, execute call forward drill • CO moves forward with appropriate number of TCs, based on situation • TCs responsible for maintaining security and stand-off distance with human obstacle

  23. Our TTPs (cont.) • Key Leader or CO directs ONE civilian (the leader) to approach the security line, ALONE • Ensure all friendly personnel clear of crew served weapons and other lines of fire • CO gets Human Obstacle to displace or determines to force the convoy thru • You are not PSYOPS or CA - it is not your job to meet their demands - your job is to get them to displace, then keep moving

  24. Our TTPs (cont.) • Remember, you are working to get them out of your way • Do not appease, feed, or give them anything • If they do not disband, you must force your way thru - tough to execute, but it is feasible • Warning shots may help, but they could incite a riot. • Smoke Grenades have worked very well so far • Remember - this obstacle may be linked to enemy activity - They want you to stop!

  25. Our TTPs • Visual Contact • If enemy poses a threat, anticipate an attack. Engage with aimed and deadly fires • Person on the Gun/Weapon System makes the decision to shoot or not. If they perceive a threat, they eliminate that threat

  26. Other Considerations • Ammunition Status • Red – rounds loaded • Yellow – magazine loaded, chamber clear • Green – magazines out, chamber clear • Weapons Control Status • Hold – Engage only if engaged (threat) or ordered to do so • Tight – Engage if target is positively identified as enemy • Free – Engage unless target is positively identified as friendly • .50 Cal, M240B, M249 TTP • Belt inserted, feed tray closed, bolt forward • Do not carry weapons on anything but safe - you will transition at the moment of truth