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Shampoo PowerPoint Presentation

Shampoo

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Shampoo

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  1. How to formulate solutions Shampoo

  2. Lesson Topics • Shampoo Market Overview • Consumer Problems • Surfactant Science • Formulating a shampoo • Testing

  3. Lesson Objectives • Shampoo Market Overview • Introduce the shampoo market • Consumer Problems • Explain the problems shampoo formulas are designed to fix • Surfactant Science • Discuss surfactant properties • How they are relevant to cosmetics • Formulating a solution • Dissect a shampoo formula • Explaining what ingredients are used and why • Testing • Explain how to test a shampoo

  4. Shampoo

  5. Shampoos • Solution cosmetic designed to clean hair and leave it a more manageable state • Solutions - one of the simplest types of cosmetic formulas

  6. Shampoo Market • Overall Market • Hair care market estimated ~ $40 Billion worldwide • Amount of money spent in US on Shampoo/conditioner • $2.26 billion (Food, Drug, Mass market)* *Does not include Walmart

  7. $ MARKET SHARE 16 7.6 7.5 6.9 6.6 4.0 3.9 3.8 3.3 3.3 3.2 US Top Brands BRAND • Pantene – P&G • Head & Shoulders – P&G • Herbal Essences – P&G • Suave - Unilever • Garnier (Fructis) – L’Oreal • Tresemme – Alberto Culver • Matrix (Biolage) – L’Oreal • L'Oreal (Vives) – L’Oreal • Dove - Unilever • Private Label • John Frieda - Kao *Data from IRI covering 52 weeks ending 5/2009

  8. Units sold (millions) 20.9 19.5 11.8 11.5 10.6 7.5 5.4 5.2 US Top Brands BRAND • Suave - Unilever • Pantene – P&G • VO5 – Alberto Culver • Herbal Essences – P&G • Garnier (Fructis) – L’Oreal • Head & Shoulders – P&G • L'Oreal (Vives) – L’Oreal • Tresemme – Alberto Culver *Data from IRI covering 52 weeks ending 5/2009

  9. Shampoo Market • Types of shampoo (marketing) • Normal • Extra body (volumizing, thickening, etc) • Moisturizing (smoothing, shine, restore) • Strengthening • Curl • 2 in 1 • Color treated • Color Enhancing • Baby (tear-free) • Natural

  10. Shampoo Market • Specialty • Anti-dandruff • Anti-lice • Hair loss treatments • Significantly Different • Powdered shampoos • No-rinse shampoo • Co-washing

  11. Consumer Problems • Clean hair / oil removal • Moisturize • Easier to comb • Prevent frizz • Shine • Volume • Medicated • Anti-dandruff • Anti-lice • Hair loss

  12. Technology Surfactants Conditioning agents Anti-dandruff agents Acaracides Minoxidyl Addressing the problems Problem • Clean hair / oil removal • Moisturize • Easier to comb • Prevent frizz • Shine • Volume • Medicated • Anti-dandruff • Anti-lice • Hair loss

  13. Surfactant Science

  14. Surfactants • Defined • Molecules compatible with water & oil • Surfactant = Surface Active Agent

  15. Surfactant Molecule Hydrophilic = Lipophobic Hydrophobic = Lipophilic

  16. Surfactant in solution • Reduces surface tension • Helps disperse oil in water (or water in oil)‏ • Forms micelles to suspend particles

  17. Surfactant • Typical surfactant mixture • Surfactant is mixed with oil • Lipophilic tails orient with oil • Polar heads orient with water • Micelles are created • Micelle formation • Critical Micelle Concentration

  18. Surfactant Solutions • Depending on concentration different structures are formed • Simple shampoos are basically surfactant solutions (no oils)‏

  19. Surfactant Structures

  20. Surfactant Functions • Key in Shampoos • Cleaning / Detergency • Wetting • Dispersing • Foaming • Thickening • Conditioning • Other functions • Emulsification • Solubilization • Penetration enhancement • Antimicrobial activity • Opacification

  21. Detergency • Two types of “dirt” in hair • Solid particulate • Oily deposits • Solid particulates • From pollution, hair products • Adhere via Van der Waals forces • Anionics & non-ionics increase hydrophylicity of surface

  22. Detergency • How surfactants remove liquids • Remove dirt & grease from surfaces • Mechanism • Surfactant orients along oil/water interface • This lifts oil off surface suspending in solution • Rinse water removes the oil micelle

  23. Wetting • Breaks down the inherent surface tension of water • Water with surfactant can spread better on the hair Without Surfactant With Surfactant

  24. Dispersing • Particles are suspended in the shampoo / water solution • They are removed upon rinsing

  25. Foaming • Air is dispersed in a continuous liquid medium • Air bubbles are surrounded by thin layers of liquid films • Foam doesn’t contribute much to removal of dirt • Consumers like foam but it doesn’t really mean the product cleans better

  26. Thickening • Viscosity of surfactant solution can be affected by • Concentration of surfactant • Salt concentration • pH

  27. Types of Surfactants • Anionic • Negatively charged • Amphoteric (Zwitterionic)‏ • capable of both positive & negative charges • Cationic • Positively charged • Nonionic • No charge

  28. Anionic Surfactants • These are the primary shampoo surfactants • Alkyl Sulfates • Examples - SLS • Alkyl Ether Sulfates • Example – ALES • Alpha – Olefin Sulfonates • Examples

  29. Anionic Surfactants • Other types • Sulfosuccinates • Alkylbenzene Sulfonates • Acyl Methyltaurates • Acyl Sarcosinates • Acyl Isethionates • Acyl Polypeptide Condensates • Monoglyceride Sulfates • Fatty Glyceryl Ether Sulfonates

  30. Anionics • Why use them? • Excellent detergency • Relatively inexpensive • Good foaming • Highly stable • Drawbacks • Can be irritating • Drying to hair

  31. Amphoteric Surfactants • Can have a positive or negative charge depending on the pH of the solution • Zwitterionic • Types • Cocamidopropyl Betaine • Cocoamphopropionate • Sodium Lauraminopropionate

  32. Amphoteric Surfactants • Why use them? • Good Detergency • Less Irritating than anionics • Helps thicken system • Helps improve foam • Drawbacks • More expensive • Do not foam well enough on their own

  33. Non Ionic Surfactants • Surfactant molecules with no charge • Types • Fatty Alkanolamides • Lauramide DEA • Cocamide DEA • Amine Oxides • Lauramine Oxide • Stearamine Oxide

  34. Non Ionic Surfactants • Why use them? • Foam enhancer • Reduce irritation • Increase viscosity • Conditioning effect • Anti-static effect • Solubilize fragrances • Baby Shampoos • PEG-80 Sorbitan Laurate • Drawbacks • Safety issues • More expensive • Do not foam well on their own

  35. Cationics • Positively charged surfactant molecules • Types • Cetrimonium Chloride • Stearylalkonium Chloride • Not used for shampoos • Don’t clean as well • Don’t rinse as well • Don’t foam as well

  36. Shampoo Formulations

  37. Shampoo Characteristics • Aesthetics • Appearance • Clear • Pearlized • Thickness (Viscosity)‏ • Foam • Creamy, rich to thin & loose • Harshness • Conditioning effects

  38. Basic types of Shampoos • Normal • Volumizing • Moisturizing • 2 in 1 • Baby • Natural

  39. Shampoo Performance

  40. Shampoo Formula • Water • Surfactant • Secondary Surfactant • Preservative • Conditioning agent • Color • Fragrance • Feature Ingredients • Specialty ingredients

  41. Shampoo Formula • Secondary Surfactant • Modify viscosity • Improve foam • Reduce irritation • Aesthetic ingredients • Opacifying agent • Clarifying agents • Colorants

  42. Shampoo Formula • Conditioning agents • Silicones • Cationic polymers • Preservatives • Fragrance • Feature Ingredients • Formula Adjusters • Acid • Chelating agents

  43. Cosmetic Formula sheet

  44. Normal Shampoo Formula

  45. Activity of Ingredients • Many raw materials are sold diluted • % Solids = Raw material – water • Eg. ALS sold as 28% solids • 32% of the supplied raw material is only ~9% solid ALS • % Active is usually synonymous with % Solids

  46. Volumizing Shampoo Formula

  47. Volumizing Shampoo • Higher level of surfactant • Volumizing polymer (optional)‏ • Guar hydroxypropyltrimonium chloride

  48. Moisturizing Shampoo Formula

  49. Moisturizing Shampoo • More gentle detergents • Added conditioning ingredients • Polyquaternium-7 • Dimethicone Copolyol • Pearlized – (optional)‏ • Glycol Stearate

  50. 2-in-1 Shampoo Formula