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Plant biofuel related Novel biofuel Novel ways to enhance biofuel production Biophotovoltaics PowerPoint Presentation
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Plant biofuel related Novel biofuel Novel ways to enhance biofuel production Biophotovoltaics

Plant biofuel related Novel biofuel Novel ways to enhance biofuel production Biophotovoltaics

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Plant biofuel related Novel biofuel Novel ways to enhance biofuel production Biophotovoltaics

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  1. Plant biofuel related • Novel biofuel • Novel ways to enhance biofuel production • Biophotovoltaics • Photosynthesis related • Enhancing light harvesting • Enhancing carbon capture • Carboxysomes in higher plants • Carbonic anhydrase • C4 rice • Plant biotechnology related • Plantibodies • Other useful products made in plants • Bioremediation • Heavy metals • Pesticides

  2. Agriculture related • Improving nutritional value by GMO or wide-breeding • Vitamins • Essential amino acids • Iron • Other nutrients • Reducing fertilizer needs • Selecting for water-use efficiency • Selecting for efficiency of other nutrients • Moving N-fixation to other species • Improving mycorrhizae • GMO for weed and pest control • Round-up resistance • BT toxin • Treating viruses, viroids, etc by GMO

  3. Light regulation of growth • Plants sense • Light quantity • Light quality (colors) • Light duration • Direction it comes from Have photoreceptors that sense specific wavelengths

  4. Blue Light Responses Circadian Rhythms Solar tracking Phototropism Inhibiting stem elongation Chloroplast movement Stomatal opening Gene expression Flowering in Arabidopsis

  5. Blue Light Responses Responses vary in their fluence requirements & lag time Stomatal opening is reversible by greenlight; others aren’t Multiple blue receptors with different functions!

  6. Blue Light Responses Responses vary in their fluence requirements & lag time Stomatal opening is reversible by greenlight; others aren’t Multiple blue receptors with different functions! Identified by mutants, then clone the gene and identify the protein

  7. Blue Light Responses Cryptochromes repress hypocotyl elongation Stimulate flowering Set the circadian clock (in humans, too!) Stimulate anthocyanin synthesis

  8. Blue Light Responses Cryptochromes repress hypocotyl elongation Stimulate flowering Set the circadian clock (in humans, too!) Stimulate anthocyanin synthesis 3 CRY genes

  9. Blue Light Responses 3 CRY genes All have same basic structure: Photolyase-like domain binds FAD and a pterin (MTHF) that absorbs blue & transfers energy to FAD in photolyase (an enzyme that uses light energy to repair pyr dimers) DAS binds COP1 & has nuclear localization signals CRY1 & CRY2 kinase proteins after absorbing blue

  10. Blue Light Responses 3 CRY genes CRY1 & CRY2 kinase proteins after absorbing blue CRY3 repairs mt & cp DNA!

  11. Blue Light Responses • 3 CRY genes • CRY1 regulates blue effects on growth: light-stable • Triggers rapid changes in PM potential & growth

  12. Blue Light Responses • 3 CRY genes • CRY1 regulates blue effects on growth: light-stable • Triggers rapid changes in PM potential & growth • Opens anion channels in PM

  13. Blue Light Responses • 3 CRY genes • CRY1 regulates blue effects on growth: light-stable • Triggers rapid changes in PM potential & growth • Opens anion channels in PM • Stimulates anthocyanin synthesis

  14. Blue Light Responses • 3 CRY genes • CRY1 regulates blue effects on growth: light-stable • Triggers rapid changes in PM potential & growth • Opens anion channels in PM • Stimulates anthocyanin synthesis • Entrains the circadian clock

  15. Blue Light Responses • 3 CRY genes • CRY1 regulates blue effects on growth: light-stable • Triggers rapid changes in PM potential & growth • Opens anion channels in PM • Stimulates anthocyanin synthesis • Entrains the circadian clock • Also accumulates in nucleus & interacts with PHY & COP1 to regulate photomorphogenesis, probably by kinasing substrates

  16. Blue Light Responses • 3 CRY genes • CRY1 regulates blue effects on growth: light-stable • Triggers rapid changes in PM potential & growth • Opens anion channels in PM • Stimulates anthocyanin synthesis • Entrains the circadian clock • Also accumulates in nucleus & interacts with PHY & COP1 to regulate photomorphogenesis, probably by kinasing substrates 2. CRY2 controls flowering

  17. Blue Light Responses • 3 CRY genes • CRY1 regulates blue effects on growth: light-stable 2. CRY2 controls flowering: little effect on other processes • Light-labile

  18. Blue Light Responses • 3 CRY genes • CRY1 regulates blue effects on growth: light-stable 2. CRY2 controls flowering: little effect on other processes • Light-labile 3. CRY3 enters cp & mito, where binds & repairs DNA!

  19. Blue Light Responses 3 CRY genes CRY1 regulates blue effects on growth 2. CRY2 controls flowering: little effect on other processes CRY3 enters cp & mito, where binds & repairs DNA! Cryptochromes are not involved in phototropism or stomatal opening!

  20. Blue Light Responses Cryptochromes are not involved in phototropism or stomatal opening! Phototropins are!

  21. Blue Light Responses Phototropins areinvolved in phototropism & stomatal opening! Many names (nph, phot, rpt) since found by several different mutant screens

  22. Phototropins Many names (nph, phot, rpt) since found by several different mutant screens Mediate blue light-induced growth enhancements

  23. Phototropins Many names (nph, phot, rpt) since found by several different mutant screens Mediate blue light-induced growth enhancement & blue light-dependent activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells

  24. Phototropins Many names (nph, phot, rpt) since found by several different mutant screens Mediate blue light-induced growth enhancement & blue light-dependent activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells Contain light-activated serine-threonine kinase domain and LOV1 (light-O2-voltage) and LOV2 repeats

  25. Phototropins Many names (nph, phot, rpt) since found by several different mutant screens Mediate blue light-induced growth enhancement & blue light-dependent activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells Contain light-activated serine-threonine kinase domain and LOV1 (light-O2-voltage) and LOV2 repeats LOV1 & LOV2 bind FlavinMonoNucleotide cofactors

  26. Phototropins Many names (nph, phot, rpt) since found by several different mutant screens Mediate blue light-induced growth enhancement & blue light-dependent activation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in guard cells Contain light-activated serine-threonine kinase domain and LOV1 (light-O2-voltage) and LOV2 repeats LOV1 & LOV2 bind FlavinMonoNucleotide cofactors After absorbing blue rapidly autophosphorylate & kinase other proteins

  27. Phototropins After absorbing blue rapidly autophosphorylate & kinase other proteins 1 result = phototropism due to uneven auxin transport

  28. Phototropins After absorbing blue rapidly autophosphorylate & kinase other proteins 1 result = phototropism due to uneven auxin transport Send more to side away from light!

  29. Phototropins After absorbing blue rapidly autophosphorylate & kinase other proteins 1 result = phototropism due to uneven auxin transport Send more to side away from light! Phot 1 mediates LF

  30. Phototropins After absorbing blue rapidly autophosphorylate & kinase other proteins 1 result = phototropism due to uneven auxin transport Send more to side away from light! PHOT 1 mediates LF PHOT2 mediates HIR

  31. Phototropins 2nd result = stomatal opening via stimulation of guard cell PM proton pump Also requires photosynthesis by guard cells!

  32. Phototropins 2nd result = stomatal opening via stimulation of guard cell PM proton pump Also requires photosynthesis by guard cells & signaling from xanthophylls

  33. Phototropins 2nd result = stomatal opening via stimulation of guard cell PM proton pump Also requires photosynthesis by guard cells & signaling from xanthophylls npq mutants don’t make zeaxanthin & lack specific blue response

  34. Phototropins 2nd result = stomatal opening via stimulation of guard cell PM proton pump Also requires photosynthesis by guard cells & signaling from xanthophylls npq mutants don’t make zeaxanthin & lack specific blue response Basic idea: open when pump in K+

  35. Phototropins 2nd result = stomatal opening via stimulation of guard cell PM proton pump Also requires photosynthesis by guard cells & signaling from xanthophylls npq mutants don’t make zeaxanthin & lack specific blue response Basic idea: open when pump in K+ Close when pump out K+

  36. Phototropins Basic idea: open when pump in K+ Close when pump out K+ Control is hideously complicated!

  37. Phototropins Basic idea: open when pump in K+ Close when pump out K+ Control is hideously complicated! Mainly controlled by blue light

  38. Phototropins Basic idea: open when pump in K+ Close when pump out K+ Control is hideously complicated! Mainly controlled by blue light, but red also plays role

  39. Phototropins Basic idea: open when pump in K+ Close when pump out K+ Control is hideously complicated! Mainly controlled by blue light, but red also plays role Light intensity is also important

  40. Phototropins Mainly controlled by blue light, but red also plays role Light intensity is also important due to effect on [photosynthate] in guard cells

  41. Phototropins Mainly controlled by blue light, but red also plays role Light intensity is also important due to effect on [photosynthate] in guard cells PHOT1 &2 also help

  42. Phototropins Mainly controlled by blue light, but red also plays role Light intensity is also important due to effect on [photosynthate] in guard cells PHOT1 &2 also help Main GC blue receptor is zeaxanthin!

  43. Phototropins Mainly controlled by blue light, but red also plays role Light intensity is also important due to effect on [photosynthate] in guard cells PHOT1 &2 also help Main GC blue receptor is zeaxanthin! Reason for green reversal

  44. Phototropins Mainly controlled by blue light, but red also plays role Light intensity is also important due to effect on [photosynthate] in guard cells PHOT1 &2 also help Main GC blue receptor is zeaxanthin! Reason for green reversal water stress overrides light!

  45. Phototropins water stress overrides light: roots make Abscisic Acid: closes stomates & blocks opening regardless of other signals!

  46. UV-B perception Plants also use UV-B to control development

  47. UV-B perception Plants also use UV-B to control development

  48. UV-B perception Plants also use UV-B to control development

  49. UV-B perception Plants also use UV-B to control development Absorbed by UVR8: goes from inactive dimer to active monomer

  50. UV-B perception Plants also use UV-B to control development Absorbed by UVR8: goes from inactive dimer to active monomer +ve regulators = COP1 & HY5