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Microalgae culture for biofuel production

Microalgae culture for biofuel production

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Microalgae culture for biofuel production

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  1. Microalgae culture for biofuel production Dr Navid R Moheimani BSc, MSc, PhD Chief Scientific Officer Smorgon Fuels Pty Ltd email: navidm@vicfam.com.au

  2. Fats or Oils + Methanol + Catalyst FAME & Glycerol Our capacity is = 100,000,000 L/y

  3. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Mauna_Loa_Carbon_Dioxide.pnghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Mauna_Loa_Carbon_Dioxide.png

  4. Methods of CO2 removal (CDR): Injecting liquefied CO2 into the deep sea or burying CO2 underground Biofixation of CO2 by photosynthetic organisms

  5. Why Microalgae? • Slow growth of higher plants • High fresh water requirement of higher plants • High cost of land for growing higher plants • No competition with food supply

  6. Potential species • There are many marine and freshwater species • Photosynthetic, calcified, etc • High Lipid productivity • High growth rate (45-180 times canola)

  7. Cleaned Gases Algae Biotechnology transforms Carbon Management from a Cost into a Revenue “Used” Algae have Multiple Potential Uses Algal Biotechnology Converts Flue Gases & Sunlight into Biofuels through Photosynthesis Sunlight Co-Firing Green Power Aus$60/t Power Plant / Energy Source GreenFuel bioreactor Biodiesel Aus$700/t Esterification Flue Gases Ethanol Aus$380/t Fermentation Protein Meal Aus$400/t Drying NOx + CO2 from combustion flue gas emissions Patented Algal Biotechnology

  8. Potential Uses for Micro-Algae

  9. Aims of Project • Identify suitable species and cultivation system • Optimise the growth on site • Optimise C fixation • Assess economics of large scale culture • Scaling up

  10. How to be successful in Algae for biofuel production? Finding algae Finding Photobioreactor Dewatering Post Harvesting Methodologies

  11. Comparison of productivity of microalgae Closed photobioreactors Open ponds

  12. Limitsto productivity of Microalgae • Physical factors such as light (quality and quantity), temperature, nutrient, pH, O2 and CO2 • Biotic factors including pathogens, predation and competition by other algae, and • Operational factors such as: shear produced by mixing, dilution rate, depth and harvest frequency

  13. Costing of Microalgae

  14. Tonnes of CO2 Sequestered per Year / Hectare 700 High Sunlight 600 500 Low Sunlight 400 300 200 100 - Forest Sequestration GreenFuel Sequestration CO2 Mitigation The Emissions to Biofuels technology is based on a Profit rather than Cost model Carbon-Dioxide Mitigation ($ / ton) 50 40 30 Kyoto Cost 20 10 PossibleCost in Aust GreenFuel - Potential Trading / Penalty Geoseqestration

  15. + + http://www.theage.com.au/news/business/trial-plant-to-transform-emissions-into-biofuels/2006/11/12/1163266412354.html

  16. Closed Cycle Biomass Carbon Management Fuel Carbon (100%) Flue Carbon (100 %) Clean Gases Night Time Carbon Emissions (50%) Day Time Carbon Emissions (50%) Open Cycle Carbon Fuel Carbon (60%) Algae Biomass as Fuel Source (40% Fuel Carbon) Gross Calorific Value measures 27 MJ/kg for our current microalgae Closed Cycle Carbon Management

  17. Development Process On-Site Evaluation • Feasibility Unit conducts 3-6 week on-site test for optimal algae production • Field trial requires only slipstream of gas from emission stack Pilot Program • Installation of Mini Pilot onto ¼ acre facility • Confirmation of all hardware, design, operability with scalability validation • Additional results: Biofuels for internal use Full Scale • Build out pilot program with modular expansion • Project optimised for maximum Biofuel yield and ROI Phase 3 Phase 1 Phase 2

  18. Biomax trial at Hazelwood • Microalgae selection (on going) • Testing flue gas on freshwater and seawater algae • Testing the suitability of water resources • Measuring productivity • Building ESU, floating bioreactor (20-25 g/m2/d)

  19. Vertical system (Gen 3) • ACHEIVEMENTS • Engineering Scale Unit Developed, Proprietary Design • 3D Matrix Bioreactor setup includes equipment for Algal Harvesting, Dewatering, and Water Recycling • Introduction of Bulk Flue Gases • Consistent Growth Rates achieved at an annualised rate of over 300t per annum of Algal Biomass. • Proved conceptual economic model for Capex v Opex v Growth Rate • 660 Tonnes of CO2 sequestered per hectare installed • ISSUES • Materials Discovery / Development not adequate for commercial Rollout • Harvesting issues due to materials used for 3D Matrix not releasing Algae easily

  20. Horizontal system (Gen 4) • ACHEIVEMENTS • Thin Film Bioreactor setup includes equipment for Algal Harvesting, Dewatering, and Water Recycling utilising Bulk Flue Gases • Significantly reduced Capex • Economic Commercial Scale project • Consistent Growth Rates achieved at an annualised rate of over 100t per annum of Algal Biomass. • 220 Tonnes of CO2 sequestered per hectare installed • ISSUES • Reduced sequestration / growth rates

  21. Uncertainties • Microalgae selection • Bioreactor geometry • Growth rate of microalgae • Contaminants • Water quality • Flue gas quality • Weather profile of each site

  22. Show video

  23. 300 tons algae biomass/ha/y 1/3 of biomass = oil 100 tons of oil /ha/y At Hazelwood = 1000 ha = 100 Mt of oil 1 kg of biomass = 0.5 kg of “C” 27% of CO2 is “C” 555 Kt of CO2 fixed/y 1 Black balloon = 50 g of CO2 BioMaxwill save 11.1 billion black balloons per year

  24. 1L of diesel = 2.67 Kg of CO2 Ref: http://www.epa.gov/otaq/climate/420f05001.htm Biodiesel reduces net emissions of CO2 by 78.45% Ref:NREL/SR-580-24089 UC Category 1503 1L of Biodiesel will save 2.09 Kg of CO2 100 Mega L of Biodiesel will save 209 Kt of CO2 1 Black balloon = 50 g of CO2 Biomaxwill save 4.2 billion black balloons per year

  25. Acknowledgments • The Victor Smorgon Group (Biomax™) • Hazelwood International Power