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Plant Science
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Plant Science

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  1. Plant Science Agriscience Applications

  2. Careers in Plant Science Objective: Investigate career opportunities related to plant science industries

  3. Careers in Plant Science • Career Areas: • Forest Careers • Growing, managing and harvesting trees for wood and its by-products • Horticulture Careers • Floriculture- flower production and use • Landscape and nursery- plants used around homes and businesses for aesthetic purposes

  4. Careers in Plant Science • Forest Careers • Forester • Helps with the science of growing trees • Forest Ranger • Management of forest including fire prevention • Logging Foreman • Supervise the harvesting of trees

  5. Careers in Plant Science • Floriculture (Horticulture) • Floral designer • Flower grower • Greenhouse manager • Retail florist • Wholesale florist

  6. Careers in Plant Science • Landscaping and nursery (Horticulture) • Greenskeeper- cares for golf courses • Landscaper- installs plants • Landscape architect • Nursery operator- grows trees and shrubs • Turf farmer- grows turf (grass) for sale

  7. Plant Parts and Functions Objective: Explain the function of major plant parts as related to plant growth and health

  8. Plants • Composed of many parts • Roots • Steams • Leaves • Flowers

  9. Roots • Often the largest part of the plant • Squash can have miles of roots • Adventitious roots • Found in places unexpected • Poison ivy • Mistletoe

  10. Root Two types of systems • Taproot- main root that usually grows down • Carrots • Fibrous roots- thin, hair like, and numerous • Grass • Corn

  11. Root Tissue • Root cap- outermost part of a root • Tough cells that penetrate the soil • Pushes through soil partials

  12. Roots • Area of cell division • Allows roots to grow longer • New cell replace worn away cells • Area of cell elongation • Between the root cap and the plan base • Cells become longer • Cells become specialized

  13. Roots • Xylem • Carries water and nutrients to the upper portion of the plant • Phloem • Pipeline • Carries food to the roots • Food is stored in the roots

  14. Roots Areas of cell maturation • Where cells mature • Root hairs emerge • Develop on the surface of the root • Absorb water and nutrients • Damaged easily • Cannot be replaced

  15. Stems • Support leaves, flowers, fruit • Types of stems: • Woody • Herbaceous • Other stems: • Bulbs (onions) • Rhizomes (wiregrass) • Tubers (potato)

  16. Light Carbon dioxide + water = sugar + oxygen Leaves • Manufactures food for the plant • Converts sunlight into food • Photosynthesis

  17. Leaves • Help in the identification of plants • Leaf margins • Shape and size varies with each species • Simple leaves • Compound leaves

  18. Flowers • Function is to produce seeds • Types of flowers • Perfect (both male and female) • Imperfect • Pollination • The union of pollen with the female part of the flower

  19. Chlorophyll Glucose Respiration Turgor Transpiration Pore Macronutrient Micronutrient Acid Alkaline Chlorosis Scorch Assignment Using pages 317 to 331 write a definition of the following terms in your notebook:

  20. Photosynthesis Objective: Explore the photosynthesis process as related to growth and development of a plant

  21. Process • Light energy is connected to chemical energy • Chloroplast contains chlorophyll • Simple sugars are made (glucose) • Carbon dioxide is used • Oxygen is produced

  22. Glucose Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Water Photosynthesis 6CO2+12H2O C6H12O2+6O2

  23. Slowing Photosynthesis • Low Carbon dioxide • Greenhouse • Carbon dioxide generators

  24. Slowing Photosynthesis • Low Light • Dark rooms • Light intensity matters • Temperature • Best at 65-85 degrees Fahrenheit • Extreme temps can stop photosynthesis

  25. Respiration • Food is used • Energy is released • Oxygen is used • Carbon dioxide is produced • Occurs in both light and dark

  26. Transpiration • Release of water vapor from the stomata • 90% of the water entering the roots • 10% is used in chemical processes • Functions: • cooling • transportation • maintaining turgor pressure

  27. Plant Reproduction Objective: Describe flower and seed parts, including their function

  28. Plant Reproduction • Two types of propagation: • Sexual • use of seed for reproducing plants • only way to obtain new varieties and hybrid vigor • often least expensive and quickest • Asexual • vegetative • exact duplicate

  29. Parts of the Flower • Stamen (male part) • Filament • Anther- manufactures pollen • Pollen- male sexual reproductive cell

  30. Parts of the Flower • Pistil (female part) • Stigma- receives the pollen • Style- connection to the ovary • Ovary- contains the ovules or female reproductive cells

  31. Parts of the Flower • Petals (corolla) • Colored part of the flower • Attract insects or other natural pollinators

  32. Parts of the Flower Pollen Stamen (Male) Anther Filament Stigma Style Pistil (Female) Ovary

  33. Anther Filament Flower Parts

  34. The Seed Parts of the seed: • Seed Coat offers protection • Endosperm supplies food for the seed • Embryo is the young plant

  35. Germination • The seed starts to sprout and grow • Requires four environmental factors: • Water • Air • Light • Temperature

  36. Environmental Factors • Water imbibition (absorption of water) • Tough seed coat • Scarifying seeds • Air is needed for respiration • Seeds are viable or alive

  37. Environmental Factors • Light • Some seeds need light while others do not • Seeds must have the right temperature to germinate

  38. Asexual Propagation • Cutting vegetative parts of the plant: • leaf cuttings • root cuttings • stem cuttings • layering • grafting • T-budding • tissue culture (micropropagation)

  39. Assignment Complete the Self Evaluation on page 331 to 333 sections A to D. For section D make all “False” answers true.

  40. Plant Science Objective: Analyze basic soil and media requirements for growth of agricultural crops

  41. Soil and Plant Media • Soil is the top layer of the earth's surface • Sphagunm moss • root growth • Perlite • volcanic glass • starting new plants • media mixes

  42. Soil and Plant Media • Vermiculite • mineral mica-type material • stating plant seeds • cuttings • media mixes

  43. Soil and Plant Media • Peat Moss • used in media mixes

  44. Acid 10 8 Neutral 2 5 Alkaline 7 Soil pH • Improper pH affects availability of nutrients • limits plant intake

  45. Amending soil pH High Alkalinity Change to acidic by adding sulfer or aluminum sulfate

  46. Amending soil pH High Acid Change to more alkaline by adding lime

  47. Amending soil pH • Lime is usually applied as finely ground dolomitic limestone • calcium • magnesium

  48. Fertilizers Objective: Explain nutrient requirements and soil amendments needed for growth of agricultural crops

  49. Fertilizers Nitrogen-Phosphorus-Potassium Example: 10-10-10 N-P-K