Creatures and Dangers at Sea Essential Questions: What are some of the creatures in the ocean? What sea creatures have been immortalized in literature and the arts? How do we evaluate information both online and in print?
What Might You See on A Dive Into the Ocean? • Sea urchins • Shell fish • Dolphins • Sharks • Whales • Octopus • Rays
Oldest Class of Fish The most primitive fish-like animals are those with sucking mouths, such as lampreys and hagfishes, whose evolution stopped short of the development of biting jaws. Mainly bottom-dwellers, these animals are of great interest to zoologists, for many parts of their bodies show forms and functions that help to explain some of the evolutionary steps leading from low to advanced life forms.
Largest and Smallest Fish The largest is the whale shark, which grows to more than 50 feet in length and may weigh several tons. The smallest fish is the tiny goby, an inhabitant of fresh-to-brackish-water lakes in Luzon, Philippines. It is less than 1/3 of an inch fully grown.
How Many Different Species of Fish Are There? The most often quoted estimate is 20,000. There may be as many as 20,000 more.
Some Sea Life is Considered Food for Humans • Seafood is consumed all over the world; it provides the world's prime source of high-quality protein: 14–16% of the animal protein consumed world-wide; over one billion people rely on seafood as their primary source of animal protein. • Seafood prominently includes fish and shellfish • Believe it or not, most of the seafood we eat does not come from the United States. Although we eat a lot of sustainably caught and farmed U.S. seafood, we import around 91 percent of the seafood we consume. About half of that seafood is farm-raised.
How Old Can Lobster Be? No one has yet found a way to determine the exact age of a lobster. However, based on scientific knowledge of body size at age, the maximum age attained may approach 100 years. They can grow to be 3 feet or more in overall body length. Young lobster
During Which Months Is It Safer to Eat Oysters? • “Eat oysters during the months without R’s” • Fresh oysters properly refrigerated can be wholesome and nutritious throughout the year. They can spoil rapidly at high temperatures even when refrigeration is used. • However, while presence of the Vibriovulnificus bacteria is higher in warmer months, according to the Department of Health and Human Service's Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a full 40 percent of cases occur during colder months from September through April.
Why Do Food Fish Sometimes Have a Strong Odor? For most species, truly fresh fish is almost odorless. Fish begin to smell "fishy" when deterioration sets in, often caused by incorrect storage practices that bring about the release of oxidized fats and acids through bacterial and enzymatic action.
If I Eat Dolphin in a Restaurant, Am I Eating Flipper? • Dolphins, like Flipper, are cetaceans (i.e., whales), which are mammals. This means they are toothed members of the whale family that breathe air. • Dolphin fish are "bony fish", or teleost, that live in the open waters of the Atlantic and Pacific. They breathe underwater through their gills. Mahi-Mahi is the Hawaiian vernacular for the common dolphin fish (Coryphaenahippurus). • So, not to worry, you did not eat Flipper!
“What would an ocean be without a monster lurking in the dark? It would be like sleep without dreams.” by Werner Herzog
What About Dangerous Sea Life?The Basis for an Aquatic Horror Story • There are thousands of killer creatures that live in the water, both of the known variety and the unknown. • Whether there’s a known “killer” creature, mutants rising from the waters, or alien creatures from another planet, the fact is, because of the depth and vastness of the ocean and the fact that we don’t really know about everything “down there,” it makes for great aquatic horror novels and films.
What creatures can be dangerous to swimmers? • The barracuda, sharks, moray eels, octopuses, and sharp-spined sea urchins can be dangerous to swimmers. • The Portuguese man-of-war has tentacles up to 50 feet long with specialized cells that produce painful stings and welts on contact by swimmers. • Sting rays, toadfish, catfish, and jellyfish can inflict damage on swimmers and waders.
Many Horror Books and Movies Are Based on Sharks The most dangerous species in order of documented attack records are: the great white shark, bull shark, tiger shark, grey nurse shark, lemon shark, blue shark, sand tiger, several species of hammerheads, and the mako. Which are the most dangerous species of sharks?
What attracts sharks? • Sound, rather than sight or smell, seems to be a shark's primary cue for moving into an area. Some scientific experiments indicate that sharks can distinguish light colors from dark, and that they may even be able to distinguish colors. • The colors yellow, white, and silver seem to attract sharks. Many divers maintain that clothing, fins, and tanks should be painted in dull colors to avoid shark attacks. • Though blood itself may not attract sharks, its presence in combination with other unusual factors will excite the animals and make them more prone to attack.
Is a Stone Crab Harmed When Its Large Claw is Broken Off for Food? Fisherman often break off the large claw and throw the crab back into the water. If the break is made at the first joint, the crab is not harmed. The stone crab can and does sever its own claw at the first joint (by muscular contraction) to escape from danger. It takes a year to grow back. Danger to humans?
How Much Electricity Does an Electric Eel Produce? The average discharge is more than 350 volts, but discharges as high as 650 volts have been measured. Voltage increase until the eel is about three feet long, after which only amperage increases. Some South American eels measure 10 feet in Length. Danger to humans?
Gathering Information: Is That Site Good Enough to Cite? • There are billions of websites out there • Many of them are not worthy of your time and don’t belong in your bibliographies! • Sometimes it’s very hard to tell treasure from trash. • Sometimes Web developers don’t want you to understand the difference. Why would that be true?
Yeah, and how can we be sure our teacher will think it’s good enough to cite? Okay, so how do we know if a site is good?
Think of CAARP • CURRENCY • ACCURACY • AUTHORITY • RELEVANCE • PURPOSE
Guess What This Is • They have been around for many years, as the earliest known of the species goes back 215 million years ago, which makes them even older than snakes and lizards. Unfortunately today some of the species are endangered. • This is a reptile, and it is known for its shell that develops from its ribs to protects it from harm.
What About the Whale in Moby Dick? Sperm whales, the largest toothed whales on the planet, are rarely studied because they spend so much time underwater. They are deep divers, holding their breath and diving thousands of feet down to feed on deep sea squid and fish. They spend 90% of their lives down deep where they can't be seen. Only rarely do these energetic animals take a break and rest at the surface. The Sperm Whale was the largest supplier of lamp oil in the 19th century before the later use of petroleum products. The harpoon having pierced vital organs does its deadly work and the whale eventually dies from its wounds a day later.
Website Evaluation See if you can tell if the following website is bogus or untrustworthy or if it is authoritative. Dihydrogen Monoxide http://www.dhmo.org/ • CURRENCY • ACCURACY • AUTHORITY • RELEVANCE • PURPOSE
Famous Mathematicians and Scientists Have Affected the Course of History
Coming Soon! Oceans: Conservation and Our Future