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Hazard and Vulnerability Assessment

Hazard and Vulnerability Assessment

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Hazard and Vulnerability Assessment

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  1. Hazard and Vulnerability Assessment OSHA Training Institute – Region IX University of California, San Diego (UCSD) - Extension OSHA Training Institute

  2. Objectives • Discuss methods of conducting a hazard vulnerability analysis (HVA) • Identify how the HVA is applicable to preparedness and evacuation • Practice effective training techniques in conducting a HVA OSHA Training Institute

  3. The HVA and the Relationship to Evacuation • The HVA is a tool used to evaluate the potential risks for a facility • It is not an evaluation of the potential for evacuation • However, risks identified in the process may focus the organization toward the need to mitigate and prepare for circumstances that could include evacuation OSHA Training Institute

  4. The Purpose of the HVA • The purpose is a prioritization process that will result in a risk assessment for “all hazards” • The tool includes consideration of multiple factors • The focus is on organization planning and resources and /or the determine that no action may be required. This is an organization decision OSHA Training Institute

  5. Is this required? • The Joint Commission, previously called the Joint Commission of Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), requests an HVA for organizations to determine the focus of their emergency planning • There is no specific tool nor method defined OSHA Training Institute

  6. HVA Categories for Evaluation • There are categories considered in a formal process of assessing an HVA • Most HVA tools include an assessment of the following factors: • Probability that an event will occur • The risk of disruption to the organization associated with the event scored as high, moderate or low or a similar description. • The level of preparedness OSHA Training Institute

  7. Probability of Occurrence • The probability may be based on statistics and objective information but also may be intuitive and highly subjective. • The following factors are often considered: • Known risk • Historical data • Manufacturer or vendor statistics American Society of Healthcare Engineering 2001 OSHA Training Institute

  8. Historical Data • Natural events • Hazardous material releases • Technological accidents • Infrastructure problems OSHA Training Institute

  9. Risk Assessment • The risk of an event is assessed based on: • Threat to life and/or health • Disruption of services • Damage for failure possibilities • Loss of community trust • Financial impact and legal issues American Society of Healthcare Engineering 2001 OSHA Training Institute

  10. Preparedness • Preparedness of the organization’s ability to manage risks, can include items such as: • Status of current plans • Training • Insurance • Back up systems • Community resources OSHA Training Institute

  11. Models • There are a number of models for an HVA. • Two well known models are from • American Society of Healthcare Engineering (ASHE) • Kaiser Foundation • Both models can be adjusted to fit the organization • Security organizations and other vendors also market HVA tools OSHA Training Institute

  12. Medical Center HVA Model • Kaiser model also includes: • Probability • Response factors • Human, property and business impacts, each considered as a separate issue OSHA Training Institute

  13. ASHE Model 2001 Human Events Natural Events Technological Events Kaiser Foundation Model 2001 Human Events Natural Events Technological Events Hazmat Events A Comparison of Threat Events Considered in HVA Models OSHA Training Institute

  14. Natural Events • Risks common to the area or geography of the region, for example: storms, earthquakes, floods, and tornadoes, and other natural causes of damage • The impact may be able to be mitigated or may result in a partial or complete evacuation OSHA Training Institute

  15. Mitigation Plans for Regions • Other models use sophisticated software to determine the hazards by cities, counties or regional areas • Are used for the development of mitigation plans for multi-jurisdictions OSHA Training Institute

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  18. Drill HVA • Grayville Hospital • Location: Grayville, CA; Eastern Sierras • Population: 150,000 • Description: small town with general services, small businesses, surrounded by rural areas and ranches OSHA Training Institute

  19. Grayville Hospital • 70 Beds • Two story building; 50 years old • ED: 5 beds; in West Wing of hospital • West Wing is single story, recently renovated and structurally reinforced 5 yrs ago • ED connected to hospital by an enclosed corridor • Patient units on second floor of hospital OSHA Training Institute

  20. Grayville Hospital On the first floor: • Six bed ICU/CCU • Two room Labor and Delivery • Ten bed family unit • Small nursery • OR: • 4 suites, 2 procedure rooms • 5 gurney recovery room • Radiology and Laboratory • Five Administrative offices OSHA Training Institute

  21. Why is this Important to Worker Well-being? • Preparedness efforts, plans and resources are directly related to the organization’s HVA • Engineering controls may occur as a result of HVA thus reducing risk for the work force • Safety factors are considered • Process promotes understanding of current resources that may not have been known beyond the “expert” OSHA Training Institute

  22. Evacuation Implications • When a risk is identified in the HVA that would potentially result in an evacuation, the organization should focus on issues that could impact the need to evacuate or to mitigate the risk. Examples: • Routes • Locations • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) • Communication to employees with special needs • Special situations - management of family on site OSHA Training Institute

  23. What Does It All Mean? • HVA tools, used to prioritize specific and overall relative risks, are based on mathematical formulas that are either embedded in the document or managed manually • The factors considered in the assessment includes the assumption that the risk occurs at the worst possible time and with a full patient census OSHA Training Institute

  24. Summary: What is the greatest risk? • The HVA process helps an organization prioritize in the order of criticality • The efforts to decrease the consequences of a possible event can be focused upon. This includes evacuation. OSHA Training Institute

  25. Examples of HVA Tools • American Society for Healthcare Engineering of the American Hospital Associationwww.ashe.org • Kaiser  Permanente’s interactive HVA tool available at:www.emsa.ca.gov/dms2/kp_hva.xls • Emergency Management Program GuidebookPublished by VHA Center for Engineering & Occupational Safety andHealth, St. Louis, MOvaww.ceosh.med.va.gov • For review of an HVA sample go to:http://www1.va.gov/emshg/apps/emp/emp.htmClick HVA under index link OSHA Training Institute

  26. References • American Society of Healthcare Engineering 2001 WWW.ashe.org • FEMA. Emergency Management Institute Hazard vulnerability analysis and risk assessment. Unit 2 http://www.training.fema.gov/emiweb/EMICourses/E464CM/02%20Unit%202.pdf • Joint Commission Resources Hazard vulnerability analysis (HVA), May/Jun 2002, 2-3 OSHA Training Institute

  27. More References • Kaiser Permanente. Medical center hazard and vulnerability analysis. 2001 Kaiser Foundation Health Plan, Inc. • Schwartz RB. Hospital preparedness for mass casualties in disasters. Institute of Disaster Medicine Medical College of Georgia slide set www.achd.net/swprjttf/pubs/pdf/hospitalprep.pdf OSHA Training Institute